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what is culture?
relationship between individual and society
what are the two typer of culture?
- material ( physical objects)- the tools and and techniques that improve our ability to take what we want from nature
- non material ( values , beliefs, traditions)
what are the features of culture?
- culture is learned (values)
- culture is shared ( hockey,symbols)
- culture is transmitted
- culture is cumulative
- culture is human
what are three cultural survival kits? (explain)
- abstraction: capacity to create ideas or way of thinking
- ex-symbols such as language
- cooperation: create social life by estaclishing norms
- production: using tools and techniques to create what we want ( material culture)
what are the building blocks of culture?
- values- right and worng
- norm- specify appropriate behaviour
- laws- codified norms
- sanctions- rewards and punishments that ensure conformity
according to sumner what are the two types of norms?
- folkways: not so important
- ex-budging in line, please and thank you
- mores: very important, serious moral condemnation
- ex- cheating, neglecting children
what is cultural relevatism? (explain)
- every culture has a measure of intrinsic worth
- ex: multiculturism in canada
what is ethnocentrism? (explain)
- we judge others using our own cultural satndpoint
- ex- rawand, natzism. cold war
what are two aspects of culture that act as constraining forces in our lives?
what are aspects of culture that allow freedom?
- rights revolution
- post modernism
- provides minorities with rights
- support fro multiculturalism is correlated with things such as equlaity between men and women
- increased trade communication and production
- bring people together
- makes people free to explore other cultures
explain rights revolution:
- groups struggled to win equal rights under the law and in practice
- universal declaration human rights 1948 started this equalitty that allowed people to participate more fully than ever in life of their societies
- electic mixing of element from different times and places: easier to create individualized belief systems
- erosion of authority: canadians skeptic about authority
- decline of consensus around core values: value shifts are more rapid and consensus broken down on many issues
- allows us to do things effeiciently but at big cost- constrains aspects of culture and in weber view it make life like living inside an iron cage
- werglocken (worck clocks) - made life harder for workers beacuse had set time to do things. people now a days even wear clokc on wrist which shows how it has become culture. rational for efficiency
- mcdonalds have rationalized food prep for everyone making it inexpensive and fast for everyone
- define ourselves in the goods we purchase
- by wearing brand name people show who they are and who associate with
- advertising focused on kids so they can nag their parents to get the product
- pg 43
what is the sapir-whorf hypothesis?
- language determines our thought
- ex that class is gay... we think of it in a way that also offends some people in society
funcionalist view on cultural change
- pulls culture together
- cultural change would cause a more stable society
conglict theorist view on cultural change:
- tend to focus on cultural differences
- hegemonic: brain washed to think certain way even if against our interests
symbolic interactionsit view on cultural change
- dont buy in functionalism
- based on individual and cultural content can be irrational
- important ot know why people do what they do (verstehende)- borrowed from weber
what are subcultures
groups in societ with their own distinct values, norms, folkways and mores
what are countercultures
they oppose dominant values and seek to replace them