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2011-10-05 18:41:35

chapter 2
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  1. what is culture?
    relationship between individual and society
  2. what are the two typer of culture?
    • material ( physical objects)- the tools and and techniques that improve our ability to take what we want from nature
    • non material ( values , beliefs, traditions)
  3. what are the features of culture?
    • culture is learned (values)
    • culture is shared ( hockey,symbols)
    • culture is transmitted
    • culture is cumulative
    • culture is human
  4. what are three cultural survival kits? (explain)
    • abstraction: capacity to create ideas or way of thinking
    • ex-symbols such as language
    • cooperation: create social life by estaclishing norms
    • production: using tools and techniques to create what we want ( material culture)
  5. what are the building blocks of culture?
    • values- right and worng
    • norm- specify appropriate behaviour
    • laws- codified norms
    • sanctions- rewards and punishments that ensure conformity
  6. according to sumner what are the two types of norms?
    • folkways: not so important
    • ex-budging in line, please and thank you
    • mores: very important, serious moral condemnation
    • ex- cheating, neglecting children
  7. what is cultural relevatism? (explain)
    • every culture has a measure of intrinsic worth
    • ex: multiculturism in canada
  8. what is ethnocentrism? (explain)
    • we judge others using our own cultural satndpoint
    • ex- rawand, natzism. cold war
  9. what are two aspects of culture that act as constraining forces in our lives?
    • rationalization
    • consumerism
  10. what are aspects of culture that allow freedom?
    • multiculturalism
    • globalization
    • rights revolution
    • post modernism
  11. explain multiculturalism:
    • provides minorities with rights
    • support fro multiculturalism is correlated with things such as equlaity between men and women
  12. explain globalization:
    • increased trade communication and production
    • bring people together
    • makes people free to explore other cultures
  13. explain rights revolution:
    • groups struggled to win equal rights under the law and in practice
    • universal declaration human rights 1948 started this equalitty that allowed people to participate more fully than ever in life of their societies
  14. explain postmodernism:
    • electic mixing of element from different times and places: easier to create individualized belief systems
    • erosion of authority: canadians skeptic about authority
    • decline of consensus around core values: value shifts are more rapid and consensus broken down on many issues
  15. explain rationalization:
    • allows us to do things effeiciently but at big cost- constrains aspects of culture and in weber view it make life like living inside an iron cage
    • werglocken (worck clocks) - made life harder for workers beacuse had set time to do things. people now a days even wear clokc on wrist which shows how it has become culture. rational for efficiency
    • mcdonalds have rationalized food prep for everyone making it inexpensive and fast for everyone
  16. explain consumerism:
    • define ourselves in the goods we purchase
    • by wearing brand name people show who they are and who associate with
    • advertising focused on kids so they can nag their parents to get the product
    • pg 43
  17. what is the sapir-whorf hypothesis?
    • language determines our thought
    • ex that class is gay... we think of it in a way that also offends some people in society
  18. funcionalist view on cultural change
    • pulls culture together
    • cultural change would cause a more stable society
  19. conglict theorist view on cultural change:
    • tend to focus on cultural differences
    • hegemonic: brain washed to think certain way even if against our interests
  20. symbolic interactionsit view on cultural change
    • dont buy in functionalism
    • based on individual and cultural content can be irrational
    • important ot know why people do what they do (verstehende)- borrowed from weber
  21. what are subcultures
    groups in societ with their own distinct values, norms, folkways and mores
  22. what are countercultures
    they oppose dominant values and seek to replace them