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what is the function of blood?
- -transport gases, nutrients, and waste
- -moves molecules from one organ to another
- -tranport of regulatory molecules
- -regulates ph of body fluids
- -maintain body temp
- -protect against invading pathogens
what is fibrinogen?
produce by liver, aid in blood clotting
what is albumins?
- smallest and most numerous blood plasma protein produced by the liver
- - function as transport protein for several steriod hormones and fatty acids
what is gloubins?
- produce by the liver and plasma cell
- -developed by b lymphocytes
- -antibodies help attack virues and bacteria
95% formed elements
-transport O2 and CO2
mediate inflammation, immunity
assist in some types of clotting
plasma is composed of???
- -91% H2O
- -7% protein
- -2% solutes
name the 3 main protein of plasma
- -clotting protein (mostly fibrinogen)
liquid portion of bld is
classified as a colloid
albumin is what % of plasma?
albumin is what % of the total output of the liver?
maintenance of osmotic pressure?
makes plasma more viscous?
name the different types of globulins
- -transport protein
the main clot protein is
erthrocytes circulate about?
O2 is transported by?
CO2 is transported by
conversion to bicarbonate
the production of RBC's start in the red bone marrow with a precusor cell called a proerythroblast
- erythrocyte colony forming unit
- -becomes erythroblast
- -makes hemoglobin
- -cell becomes reticulocyte (nucleus loses its function)
a protein composed of 4 subunits( a2B2) and 4 heme groups
heme group on each subunit contains ______, ______ binds here
iron atom, O2
iron (fe2+) is delivered to Hb in bone marrow by
excess iron (fe2+) is maintain in the bld???
bound to ferritin
expired erythrocytes break up in?
the spleen and liver
heme is broken down into?
bilverdin is broken down into?
iron is broken dwn how?
- storage > reuse
- -loss by menstration
- injury, ect..
globin is broken down how?
hydrolyzed to free amino acids
things that make urine yellow?
- -vitamin B12
- -water intake
name the types of erythrocyte disorders
- polycythemia (excess rbc)
- anemia (low rbc)
chemical signaling that attract leukocytes (wbc)
most common leukocyte is ?
last 1-2 days, first responders, phagocytic
little sacs of protimmer emzynes
worms, wheezes, weird diseases-elevated in parastic infection, allergies, and odd diseases
- -least common wbc
- -release large amounts of histamine
- -release heparin which inhibits blood clotting
largest leukocytes, circulate for a few days then leave circulation to become macrophages
majority are found in the lymphatic system
-two types b cell and t cell
what is hemostasis?
a sequence of responses that stops bleeding
what is the stages in hemostasis?
- -vascular phase
- -platelet phase
what is the vascular phase?
a break in the wall of the blood vessel causes vascular spasms that narroe the blood vessels.
what is the platelet phase?
platelets begin attaching to the site of lesion ( forms the platelet plug)
cleaves fibrinogen to form fibrin, fibrin forms a clot
factor x combines with what for activation?
- -factor III
- -factor V
- -Ca 2+
- -PF 3 (phospholipids)
Fibrinogen > Fibrin > Fibrin polymer
in the common pathway what happen at the platelet surface?
- factor Xa combines with factor V and
- Ca 2+
defective clotting usually due to defective or lack of factor VIII
Vitamin K is
fat soluble vitamin necessary for normal clotting
the breaking down of fiber