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  1. what is the function of blood?
    • -transport gases, nutrients, and waste
    • -moves molecules from one organ to another
    • -tranport of regulatory molecules
    • -regulates ph of body fluids
    • -maintain body temp
    • -protect against invading pathogens
  2. what is fibrinogen?
    produce by liver, aid in blood clotting
  3. what is albumins?
    • smallest and most numerous blood plasma protein produced by the liver
    • - function as transport protein for several steriod hormones and fatty acids
  4. what is gloubins?
    • produce by the liver and plasma cell
    • -developed by b lymphocytes
    • -antibodies help attack virues and bacteria
  5. 95% formed elements
    -transport O2 and CO2
  6. mediate inflammation, immunity
  7. assist in some types of clotting
  8. plasma is composed of???
    • -91% H2O
    • -7% protein
    • -2% solutes
  9. name the 3 main protein of plasma
    • -albumins
    • -globulins
    • -clotting protein (mostly fibrinogen)
  10. liquid portion of bld is
    classified as a colloid
  11. albumin is what % of plasma?
  12. albumin is what % of the total output of the liver?
  13. maintenance of osmotic pressure?
  14. makes plasma more viscous?
  15. name the different types of globulins
    • -complement
    • -transport protein
    • -antibodies
  16. the main clot protein is
  17. erthrocytes circulate about?
    110-120 days
  18. O2 is transported by?
  19. CO2 is transported by
    conversion to bicarbonate
  20. erythropoeisis is?
    the production of RBC's start in the red bone marrow with a precusor cell called a proerythroblast
  21. ECFU
    • erythrocyte colony forming unit
    • -becomes erythroblast
    • -makes hemoglobin
    • -cell becomes reticulocyte (nucleus loses its function)
  22. hemoglobin
    a protein composed of 4 subunits( a2B2) and 4 heme groups
  23. heme group on each subunit contains ______, ______ binds here
    iron atom, O2
  24. iron (fe2+) is delivered to Hb in bone marrow by
  25. excess iron (fe2+) is maintain in the bld???
    bound to ferritin
  26. expired erythrocytes break up in?
    the spleen and liver
  27. heme is broken down into?
    bilverdin Iron
  28. bilverdin is broken down into?
    • bilirubin
    • -bile
    • -feces
  29. iron is broken dwn how?
    • storage > reuse
    • -loss by menstration
    • injury, ect..
  30. globin is broken down how?
    hydrolyzed to free amino acids
  31. things that make urine yellow?
    • -vitamin B12
    • -water intake
    • -urobilin
  32. name the types of erythrocyte disorders
    • polycythemia (excess rbc)
    • anemia (low rbc)
  33. chemotaxis is?
    chemical signaling that attract leukocytes (wbc)
  34. most common leukocyte is ?
  35. last 1-2 days, first responders, phagocytic
  36. granularcytes are
    little sacs of protimmer emzynes
  37. worms, wheezes, weird diseases-elevated in parastic infection, allergies, and odd diseases
  38. basophils
    • -least common wbc
    • -release large amounts of histamine
    • -release heparin which inhibits blood clotting
  39. largest leukocytes, circulate for a few days then leave circulation to become macrophages
  40. majority are found in the lymphatic system
    -two types b cell and t cell
  41. what is hemostasis?
    a sequence of responses that stops bleeding
  42. what is the stages in hemostasis?
    • -vascular phase
    • -platelet phase
    • -coagulation
    • -fibrinolysis
  43. what is the vascular phase?
    a break in the wall of the blood vessel causes vascular spasms that narroe the blood vessels.
  44. what is the platelet phase?
    platelets begin attaching to the site of lesion ( forms the platelet plug)
  45. thrombin
    cleaves fibrinogen to form fibrin, fibrin forms a clot
  46. prothrombin activates?
  47. factor x combines with what for activation?
    • -factor III
    • -factor V
    • -Ca 2+
    • -PF 3 (phospholipids)
  48. thrombin activates?
    Fibrinogen > Fibrin > Fibrin polymer
  49. in the common pathway what happen at the platelet surface?
    • factor Xa combines with factor V and
    • Ca 2+
  50. hemophilia is?
    defective clotting usually due to defective or lack of factor VIII
  51. Vitamin K is
    fat soluble vitamin necessary for normal clotting
  52. fibrinolysis is?
    the breaking down of fiber
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