ACE Inhibitors and Nitrates are:
An example of a "1st line" med.
Diuretics decrease blood ______.
Beta-adrenergic agonists increase ______ flow.
Increased calcium in the muscles results in increased ________.
Digoxin _____ the HR.
Digoxin used for ________.
The pressure the heart must overcome to eject blood to the rest of the body.
the amount of blood sitting in the heart before it contracts (diastolic volume).
Cardiac output is
the amount of blood pumped by the heart in one minute.
Stroke Volume is
the amount of blood pumped by the heart with each beat.
CO=SV x HR
The ______ side of the heart pumps oxygenated blood into the arteries.
Deoxygenated blood returns to the heart via the venous system into the _____ side of the heart.
Coronary artery disease is characterized by
progressive luminal narrowing of coronary arteries, typically due to atherosclerosis.
lack of oxygen to a specific part of the body.
A vasospasm is
a sudden constriction or narrowing of a coronary artery.
A vasospasm is
a sudden constriction or narrowing of a coronary artery.
Intense chest pain caused by lack of blood supply.
An ACE inhibitor
blocks conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II
A common side effect of an ACE inhibitor is
ACE inhibitors block conversion of Angiotensin I to II, resulting in a decrease in BP and a decrease in __________.
An important drug-to-drug reaction to remember with ACE inhibitors is
Allopurinol (for gout).
An important drug-to-drug interaction to remember with Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBS) is
Phenobarbital (for seizures).
Calcium channel blockers work by
inhibiting the movement of calcium ions across the membranes.
After inserting a foley catheter, the nurse knows to clamp the catheter after ____mL of fluid loss to prevent _______.
800, hypotension (from extreme fluid loss).
Care step 1 of hypertension treament is
Beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors and calcium channel blockers are all ____________ medications that just work a little differently.
Loop diuretics deplete _________
A patient that is on Lasix needs a __________ supplement.
Before administering an antihypertensive, the nurse knows she must assess ___ and ___.
BP & HR
HR and BP must be over ___ /___in order to administer an antihypertensive.
ARBS work by
blocking receptor sites.
A key action of ACE inhibitors is
preventing ACE from converting angiotensin I to angiotensin II.
ACE inhibitors work by
1-blocks conversion of angiotensin I to
3-small increase in serum potassium
This antihypertensive class is known to give you a cough.
This class of antihypertensives controls your blood pressure by inhibiting the movement of calcium ions.
Calcium channel blockers
Nitroprusside (Nitropress) is used for
Nitroprusside (Nitropuss) belongs to this class of hypertensives.
True or false:
It is ok for a pregnany woman to take an antihypertensive medication.
The nurse knows that benazepril, captopril and enalapril are all ________ hypertensives b/c they end in "il".
The nurse knows that Iosartan (Cozaar) and Candesartan (Atacand) belong to this class of hypertensives because they ends in "tan".
Angiotensin II receptor blockers
The nurse knows Diltiazem (Cardizem) belongs to this class of antihypertensives, even though its drug name doesn't end in "pine" like it's sister drugs, Amlodipine, Felodipine, Isradipine and Nicardipine.
Calcium channel blocker
Nitroprusside (Nitropress) belongs to this class of hypertensives.
A nurse knows to double check the order for Diltiazem (Cardizem) CR because?
to make sure the continued release form is correctly ordered for the patient.
A key contraindication of ACE inhibitors and Angiotensin II-receptor blockers is
impaired renal function
Captopril (Capoten) belongs to this class of hypertensives.
Enalapril (Vasotec) belongs to this class of antihypertensives.
A nurse knows a patient's condition of impaired renal function could be exacerbated if an ______ _______ is taken.
The absorption of ACE inhibitors _______with food.
Serious side effects of Captopril (Capoten) are
1-sometimes fatal pancytopenia
A patient taking Phenobarbital is prescribed Losartan. What class of antihypertensives is Losartan and what are the nursing actions?
Angiotensin II receptor-blocker; monitors the patient closely for a drug-to-drug interaction.
True or False:
Digoxin is fast-acting and is given in an emergency situation.
Digoxin toxicity indicators usually include:
During assessment of a 5'0" elderly woman, weighing 100lbs with confusion, nausea/vomitting and visual disturbances and is taking Digoxin, the nurses knows
her blood levels should be checked for Dixoxin toxcity.
Digoxin ______ force of contraction.
Dixoxin belongs to which class of drugs.
Your child is playing in the yard and you found him eating foxglove leaves. How will that effect your child? And what drug is derived from the foxglove plant.
Cardiac glycosides work immediately or take a while?
They take a while, not fast acting.
Digibind does what?
Binds with Digoxin incase of Digoxin toxicity. It's the antidote for Digoxin.
Cardiac glycosides most important drug to drug interactions to remember are:
Thyroid hormones _______ the effects of Digoxin.
Before administering Dixogin, you test?
apical heart rate
Heart block means that sinus node is blocked (electrical signal) so it would be a _______ heart rate.
Since cardiac glycosides act like diuretics, an important contraindication would be _______ insufficiency.
Phosphodiesterase inhibitors are used for treatment of patients in?
Phosphodiesterase inhibitors give the heart a ______ and are primarily used in a _______.
Inamrinone (Inocor) & Milrinone (Primacor) are what class of drugs?
The class of drugs known to give the heart a "boost" are
An example of a phosphodiesterase inhibitor known as a cardio "tonic" to give the heart a "boost" is
What is happening in Phase I of the action potential of the cardiac muscle of the heart?
sodium is equal inside and outside of the heart
During which phase of the action potential of the cardiac muscle does the sodium decline, calcium slowly enter and potassium begin to leave?
What is happening during phase III of the action potential of the cardiac muscle cell?
2-sodium gates close
What is happening during phase II of the action of the cardiac muscle cell?
2-calcium comes in
The action potential phase of the cardiac muscle cell in which the heart reaches a point of stimulation.
Sodium is equal in which phase of the action potential of the cardiac muscle?
Sodium declines, calcium begins to enter and potassium begins to leave occurs during which phase of action of cardiac muscle cell?
Name five causes of cardiac dysrhythmias
1-acidosis or accumulation of waste products
3-structural damage changing the
conduction pathway thru the heart
5-decrease in oxygen to cells
Lidocaine (xylocaine) in layman terms, _____ the heart muscle.
Lidocaine (xylocaine) belongs to class
Three important characteristics of lidocaine
2-bolus push, then drip if needed
Common side effects of Lidocaine are
propafenone (Rhythmol) is used for ______ _______.
Propafenone (Rhythmol) belongs to this class of antiarrythmics.
Propranolol (Inderal) belongs to this class of antiarrythmics.
Class II antiarrhythmics are _____ _______.
Beta blockers actions are:
1-block beta receptor sites in the heart
3-decrease cardiac exciteability
4-decrease cardiac output
Beta blockers _______ blood pressure.
Beta blockers are used for treatment of
2-PVC's (that extra beat)
Any drug with an "lol" at the end is a?
Before administering a beta blocker, what must always be assessed and why?
b/c if it's too low already you will not administer
Bradycardia and low BP are serious contraindications of this class of antiarrythmics.
Name two serious contraindications of beta blockers.