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What is the most serious health problem in early childhood?
What influences obesity in early childhood?
Who has the highest rate of childhood obesity?
How often should children exercise?
What is the number one cause of death?
US motor vehicle accidents
What is another major danger, besides motor vehicle accidents, in children?
What are the risks of second hand smoke?
- wheezing symptoms
- sleep problems
- sleep-disordered breathing
What is the preoperational stage?
- do not yet perform operations
- represent the world with words, images, & drawings
- form stable concepts & begin to reason
- cognition dominated by egocentrism & magical beliefs
What are the substages of preoperational stage?
- symbolic functions
- intuitive thought
What age does the preoperational stage occur?
ages 2 to 7
What are the limitations of preoperational stage?
What is egocentrism?
cannot distinguish one's own perspective from someone else's
What is animism?
the belief that inanimate objects have life like qualities & are capable of action
What is symbolic function?
- a substage of the preoperational stage
- child gains the ability to mentally represent an object that is not present
What is intuitive thought?
- a substage of the preoperational stage
- children use primitive reasoning & want to know the answers to questions
- always want to know WHY
- 4-7 years
- Have difficulty understanding events that cannot be seen and negotiating traffic
- Are unaware of how they know what they know
- Why of death is a hard concept to grasp
What study was used to test egocentrism?
the three mountain task
What is centration?
centering attention on one characteristic to the exclusion of all others
What is conservation?
altering a substance's appearance does not change its basic properties
What is the zone of proximal development?
- range of tasks that are too difficult for the child alone but that can be learned with guidance
- what parenting is built on
- its to get them towards independence
What is scaffolding?
- changing the level of support during a teaching session
- teachers adjust support for a child to master it
What could interviewing techniques for children do?
can produce substantial distortions in children's reports about events
What does tone should an interviewer have and what does it limit?
- limits the use of misleading questions
What is theory of mind?
awareness of one's own mental process and mental processes of others
What theory of mind does a child of 18 months to 3 years have?
children begin to understand three mental states- perceptions, desires, and emotions
What theory of mind does a child of 3 to 5 years have?
children understand false beliefs
What theory of mind does a child of 5 to 9 years have?
appreciation of the mind
What theory of mind does a child of 7+ years have?
understands the beliefs and thoughts of others
What is false belief?
when children can understand that people can have different, and sometimes incorrect, beliefs
What experiment demonstrated that children to not understand false belief?
- The False Belief Task
- found that children younger than 4 years old do no understand that it is possible to have a false belief
How is the theory of mind affected in children with autism?
- have difficulty developing theory of mind
- difficulty in understanding others' beliefs and emotions
What stage of Erikson's psychosocial stage is associated with early childhood?
intiative verses guilt
What is intiative verses guilt?
- move out into the world on their own
- great governor is conscience
- initiative & enthusiasm may bring them rewards but also can lead to guilt which can lower self-esteem
What is self-understanding?
- the representation of self
- the substance and content of self-conceptions
- Others have emotions and desires, don't always give accurate reports of their beliefs, and understand joint commitments
What two types of parents regulate emotion and peer relations?
What is emotion-coaching?
parents monitor their child's emotions, view them as opportunities for teaching, and coach them in how to deal with emotions effectively
What is emotion-dismissing?
parents view their role as to deny, ignore, or change negative emotions
What study found that specific outcomes for children's emotional development depends on the type of parenting expressed?
- Davidov & Grusec
- response to child without warmth regulated negative emotions
- response of warmth regulated positive emotions
What is moral development?
the development of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding rules and conventions about what people should do in their interactions with other people
What are the two stages of moral development and who discovered it?
- heteronomous morality (4 to 7 years)
- autonomous morality (10 years and up)
What is heteronomous morality?
justice and rules are unchangeable
What is autonomous morality?
rules and laws are created by people
What is empathy?
- responding to another person's feelings with an emotion that echoes the other's feelings
- needed for perspective taking
What are Baumrind's parenting styles?
What is authoritarian parenting style?
parents demand obedience and respect
What is authoritative parenting style?
- encourages children to be independent while placing limits and controls on action
- may be most effective
What is negletful parenting style?
parent is very uninvolved in child's life
What is indulgent parenting style?
parents highly involved but place few demands or controls on the child
What does research say about corporal punishment?
use of corporal punishment is linked to antisocial behavior
What are other ways a child should be punished?
- reason with the child
- explain the consequences of the child's actions for others
What is the cause in some cases of abuse?
parents are involved in intergenerational transmission of abuse
What effects can working parents produce?
positive and negative effects
What do children from divorced families show?
poorer adjustment than children from intact families
What did research show about gay male and lesbian parents?
few differences than in children with hetersexual parents
What is play?
a pleasurable activity in which children engage for its own sake
What are the types of play?
- sensorimotor play
- practice play
- pretense/symbolic play
- social play
- constructive play
What is sensorimotor play?
behavior engaged in by infants to derive pleasure from exercising their existing sensorimotor schemas
What is practice play?
play that involves repetition of behavior when new skills are being learned or when physical or mental mastery and coordination of skills are required for games or sports
What is pretense/symbolic play?
play in which the child transforms the physical environment into a symbol
What is social play?
play that involved social interactions with peers
What is constructive play?
- play that combines sensorimotor and repetitive activity with symbolic representation of ideas
- occurs when children engage in self-regulated creation or construction of a product or solution
What are games?
activities engaged in for pleasure that include rules and often competition with one or more individuals
What are the effects of television on a child's aggression?
TV and video game violence cause an increased aggression in children
What are the effects of television on a child's prosocial behavior?
TV shows with positive social interchanges teaches children how to use social skills
What is learning disability?
a child who has difficulty in learning that involves understanding or using spoken or written language
What are the types of learning disbilities?
What is dyslexia?
a catagory of learning disabilities involving a severe impairment in the ability to read and spell
What is dysgraphia?
a learning disability that involves difficulty in handwriting
What is dyscalculia?
- also known as developmental arithmetic disorder
- a learning disability that involves difficulty in math computation
What is autism spectrum disorders (ASD)?
- pervasive developmental disorders
- range from autistic disorder to asperger syndrome
- characterized by problems in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and repetitive behaviors
What is autistic disorder?
- onset in first 3 years of life
- deficiencies in social relationships
- abnormalities in communication
- restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behavior
What is asperger syndrome?
- a relatively mild autism spectrum disorder
- child has relatively good verbal language
- milder nonverbal language problems
- a restricted range of interests and relationships
What is individualized education plan (IEP)?
a written statement that spells out a program specifically tailored to a child with a disability
What is least restrictive environment (LRE)?
a setting that is as similar as possible to the one in which children who do not have a disability are educated
What is inclusion?
educating a child with special education needs full-time in the regular classroom
What years does the concrete operational stage occur?
7 to 11 years
What occurs in the concrete operational stage?
- children can perform concrete operations
- can logically reason as long as reasoning can be applied to specific or concrete examples
- capable of seriation and transitivity
What is seriation?
the concrete operation that involves ordering stimuli along a quantitative dimension (length)
What is transitivity?
the ability to logically combine relations to understand certain conclusions
What was discovered in the Binet Tests?
- mental age
- intelligence quotient
What is mental age?
Binet's measure of an individual's level of mental development compared with that of others
What is intelligence quotient?
a person's mental age divided by chronological age, multiplied by 100
What are the three forms of intelligence in the triarchic theory of intelligence?
- analytical intelligence
- creative intelligence
- practical intelligence
What is analytical intelligence?
the ability to analyze, judge, evaluate, compare, and contrast
What is creative intelligence?
the ability to create, design, invent, originate, and imagine
What is practical intelligence?
the ability to use, apply, implement, and put ideas into practice
What is mental retardation?
a condition of limited mental ability in which an individual has a low IQ usually below 70 on a traditional test of intelligence
What are the classifications of retardation?
- profoundly mentally retarded
What is mild retardation?
- IQs of 55-70
- able to live independently
- work at a variety of jobs
What is moderate retardation?
- IQs of 40-54
- can attain a second-grade level of skills
- may be able to support themselves as adults through some types of labor
What is severe retardation?
- IQs of 25-39
- learn to talk and accomplish very simple tasks but require extensive supervision
What is the profoundly mentally retarded classification?
- IQs below 25
- need constant supervision
How is the "self" developed in middle and late childhood?
- show an increase in perspective taking
- recognize social aspects of the self
- become skeptical of others' claims
What is self-esteem
global evaluations of the self, global assessmen
What is self-concept?
domain-specific evaluations of the self, specific
What is self-efficacy?
belief that one can master a situation and produce favorable outcomes
Which of Erikson's stages of moral development occur in middle and late childhood?
industry vs. inferiority
What is industry?
children become interested in how things work (dominant theme of this stage)
What is inferiority?
parents who see their children's efforts as mischief may encourage inferiority
What are Kohlberg's stages of moral development?
- preconventional reasoning
- conventional reasoning
- postconventional reasoning
What is preconventional reasoning?
- lowest level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development
- individual's moral reasoning is controlled primarily by external rewards and punishments
What are the substages of preconventional reasoning?
- heteronomous morality
- individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange
What is individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange?
- Kohlberg's second stage of preconventional reasoning
- individuals pursue their own interests but also let others do the same
What is conventional reasoning?
- the second level of Kohlberg's theory of moral development
- individuals abide by certain standards but they are the standards of others such as parents or the laws of society
What are the substages of conventional reasoning?
- mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity
- social systems morality
What is mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity?
- Kohlberg's third stage of moral development
- individuals value trust, caring, and loyalty to others as basis of moral judgements
What is social systems morality?
- the fourth stage of Kohlberg's theory of moral development
- moral judgements are based on understanding the social order, law, justice, and duty
What is postconventional reasoning?
- highest level in Kohlberg's theory of moral development
- individual recognizes alternative moral courses, explores the options, and then decides on a personal moral code
What are the substages of postconventional reasoning?
- social contract or utility and individual rights
- universal ethical principles
What is social contract or utility and individual rights?
- the fifth Kohlberg stage
- individuals reason that values, rights, and principles undergird or transcend the law
What is universal ethical principles?
- sixth and highest stage in Kohlberg's theory of moral development
- individuals develop a moral standard based on universal human rights
What is sociometric status?
the extent to which children are liked or disliked by their peer group
What are the five peer statuses?
- popular children
- average children
- neglected children
- rejected children
- controversial children
What are popular children?
frequently nominated as a best friend and are rarely dislike by their peers
What are average children?
receive an average number of both positive and negative nominations from their peers
What are neglected children?
infrequently nominated as a best friend but are not disliked by their peers
What are rejected children?
are infrequently nominate as one's best friend and are actively dislike by their peers
What are controversial children?
infrequently nominated both as someone's best friend and being disliked
What is social cognition?
- thoughts about social matters
- important for understanding peer relationships
What are the 5 steps in processing social information?
- Decode social cues
- Interpret at positive or negative
- Search fo an appropriate response
- Select an optimal response