anatomy 2

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anatomy 2
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anatomy 2
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  1. Splenius
    Origin:







      • Splenius Capitis







      • Spinous processes of thoracic vertebrae T3-T6, cervical vertebrae C7 & the lower half of ligamentum nuchae (posterior neck ligaments)









      • Splenius Cervicis







        • Spinous processes of throacic vertebrae T3-T6











    Insertion:







      • Splenius Capitis







        • Mastoid process of temporal & occipital bones (skull)








      • Splenius Cervicis







        • Transverse processes of vertebrae C1-C3














    Major Arteries:







      • Transverse cervical artery (Spenius Cervicis)




      • Occipital artery (Spenius Cervicis)








    Neural Innervation:







      • Posterior rami of the lower cervical spinal nerves




      • Concentric Functions:







        • Bilaterally: extends the (atlantooccipital & atlantoaxial) head & (cervical spine) neck




        • Unilaterally: Laterally flexes to the same side, rotation to the same side.








      Eccentric Functions:


















      Isometric Function:


















      Related Muscles







      • Trapezius





      • Sternocleidomastoid





      • Erector Spinae









      Antagonist:







      • Levator Scapula










      Splenius Muscle

      Anatomy

  2. Scalenes
    Origin:




      • Anterior: Transverse processes of cervical vertebrae C3-C6


      • Medial: Transverse processes of cervical vertebrae C2-C7


      • Posterior: Transverse processes of cervical vertebrae C5-C6





    Insertion:




      • Anterior: 1st rib


      • Medial: 1st rib


      • Posterior: 2nd rib






    Major Arteries:




      • Ascending cervical artery


      • Branch of inferior thyroid artery





    Neural Innervation:




      • Cervical nerves C3-C8





    Concentric Functions:




      • Flexion & rotation of the (cervical spine) neck


      • Accelerates lateral flexion of the (cervical spine) neck





    Eccentric Functions:




      • Decelerates lateral flexion of cervical spine, cervical rotation & extension





    Isometric Function:




      • Dynamic stabilization of the spine during functional movements





    Related Muscles




    • Splenius



    • Sternocleidomastoid



    • Erector Spinae






    Antagonists:




    • Levator Scapula



    • Trapezius



    • Splenius





    Exercises:




      • Neck exercisesScalene Muscle


  3. Shoulder (ball & socket) Joint
  4. Deltoids



  5. Teres Major



  6. Pectoralis Major



  7. Latissimus Dorsi
  • Deltoids
    Origin:




      • Anterior Deltoid




        • Anterior border & upper surface of the lateral third of the clavicle




      • Lateral Deltoid




        • Surface of the lateral third of the clavicle




      • Posterior Deltoid




        • Inferior edge of the spine of the scapula






    Insertion:




      • Anterior Deltoid




        • Deltoid tuberosity of the humerus




      • Lateral Deltoid




        • Deltoid tuberosity of the humerous




      • Posterior Deltoid




        • Deltoid tuberosity of the humerus









    Major Arteries:




      • Primarily posterior circumflex humeral artery





    Neural Innervation:




      • Axillary nerve (C5-C6)





    Concentric Functions:




      • Anterior Deltoid




      • Shoulder abduction, flexion, transverse flexion & internal rotation





      • Lateral Deltoid




      • Shoulder Abduction, flexion & transverse abduction





      • Posterior Deltoid




      • Shoulder extension, transverse extension, transverse abduction & external rotation









    Eccentric Functions:




      • Anterior Deltoid




        • Decelerates shoulder extension & external rotation




      • Lateral Deltoid




        • Assists in decelerating shoulder adduction




      • Posterior Deltoid




        • Decelerates shoulder flexion, internal rotation & horizontal adduction








    Isometric Function:




      • Anterior Deltoid




        • Assists in dynamically stabilizing the glenohumeral joint during functional movements & works as a neutralizer during shoulder abduction




      • Lateral Deltoid




        • Assists in dynamically stabilizing the glenohumeral joint during functional movements




      • Posterior Deltoid




        • Assists in dynamically stabilizing the glenohumeral joint during functional movements and works as a neutralizer during shoulder abduction









    Antagonists:




    • Latissimus Dorsi





    Exercises:




      • Shoulder Exercise Videos

      Deltoids Muscle


      • Anatomy
  • Teres Major
    Origin:




      • Posterior aspect of the inferior angle of the scapula




    Insertion:




      • Medial lip of the intertubercular sulcus (grove) of the humerus






    Major Arteries:




      • Subscapular artery


      • Circumflex subscapular artery





    Neural Innervation:




      • Segmental levels C5 & C6 of the lower scapular nerve









      • Concentric Functions:




        • Shoulder extension, internal rotation and adduction





      Eccentric Functions:




        • Stabilizes humeral head in glenoid fossa (cavity)





      Isometric Function:




        • Stabilizes humeral head in glenoid fossa (cavity)





      Related Muscles




        • Latissimus Dorsi




      Antagonist:




      • Deltloid










    Major Arteries:




      • Primarily posterior circumflex humeral artery





    Neural Innervation:




      • Axillary nerve (C5-C6)

      • Teres Major Muscle
      • Anatomy
  • Pectoralis Major
    Origin:




      • Sternal head




        • Anterior surface of the sternum, the superior six costal cartilages (2nd to 6th ribs), and the aponeurosis of the external oblique muscle




      • Clavicular head




        • Anterior surface of the medial half of the clavicle.






    Insertion:




      • Sternal head




        • Intertubercular groove of the proximal, anterior humerus




      • Clavicular head




        • Intertubercular groove of the proximal, anterior humerus








    Major Arteries:




      • Pectoral branch of the thoracoacromial (trunk) artery





    Neural Innervation:




      • Sternal head




        • Lateral & medial pectoral nerves C7-C8 & T1




      • Clavicular head




        • Lateral & medial pectoral nerves C5-C6


        • Concentric Functions:




          • Sternal head




            • Transverse flexion, adduction, internal rotation, adduction & extension of the shoulder




          • Clavicular head




            • Transverse flexion, adduction, internal rotation, adduction, flexion & abduction of the shoulder







        Eccentric Functions:




          • Decelerates shoulder extension, horizontal abduction and external rotation





        Isometric Function:




          • Assists in dynamically stabilizing the shoulder complex during overhead movements





        Related Muscles




          • Pectorlis Minor




        Antagonists:




        • Latissimus dorsi



        • Many others depending on motionPectoralis Major Muscle

          • Anatomy






  • Latissimus Dorsi
    Origin:




      • Spinous processes of thoracic T7-T12, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest & ribs 9-12





    Insertion:




      • Floor (medial side) of intertubercular groove of the (proximal anterior/medial) humerus






    Major Artery:




      • Thoracodorsal branch of the subscapular artery





    Neural Innervation:




      • Thoracodorsal nerve (C6 - C8)


      • Concentric Functions:




        • Adducts, extends and internally rotates the humerus





      Eccentric Functions:




        • Decelerates flexion, abduction and external rotation of the upper extremity


        • Functions as a bridge between the upper and lower extremity





      Isometric Function:




        • Assists in dynamic stabilization of the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex





      Related Muscles




        • Teres Major




      Antagonists:




      • Pectoralis Major



        • Deltoids



      Latissimus Dorsi Muscle

      • Anatomy
  • Rotator Cuff
    • Supraspinatus
    • Infraspinatus
    • Teres Minor
    • Subscapularis
  • Supraspinatus
    Origin:







      • Spinous processes of thoracic T7-T12, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest & ribs 9-12








    Insertion:







      • Floor (medial side) of intertubercular groove of the (proximal anterior/medial) humerus









    Major Artery:







      • Thoracodorsal branch of the subscapular artery








    Neural Innervation:







      • Thoracodorsal nerve (C6 - C8)




      • Concentric Functions:







        • Adducts, extends and internally rotates the humerus








      Eccentric Functions:







        • Decelerates flexion, abduction and external rotation of the upper extremity




        • Functions as a bridge between the upper and lower extremity








      Isometric Function:







        • Assists in dynamic stabilization of the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex








      Related Muscles







        • Teres Major







      Antagonists:







      • Pectoralis Major





      • Deltoids










      Supraspinatus Muscle

      Anatomy

  • Infraspinatus
    Origin:







      • Infraspinous fossa of the (medial) scapula







    Insertion:







      • Middle facet of greater tubercle of the (posterior) humerus









    Major Arteries:







      • Suprascapular artery




      • Circumflex scapular artery








    Neural Innervation:







      • Subscapular nerve








    Concentric Functions:







    • External rotation, transverse abduction & transverse extension of the humerus









    Eccentric Function:







      • Decelerates shoulder internal rotation








    Isometric Function:







      • Assists in posterior stabilization of the shoulder joint








    Related Muscles







      • Supraspinatus




      • Subscapularis




      • Teres Minor








    Antagonists:







    • Deltoids





    • Pectoralis Major





      • More depending on motion



      Infraspinatus Muscle

      • Anatomy
  • Teres Minor
    Origin:













    • Lateral border (posterior on upper & middle part) of the (lateral) scapula















    Insertion:













      • Inferior facet of (posterior) greater tubercle of the humerus















    Major Arteries:













      • Posterior circumflex humeral artery








      • Circumflex scapular artery














    Neural Innervation:













      • Axillary nerve








      • Concentric Functions:













      • External rotation, transverse abduction & transverse extension of the humerus















      Eccentric Functions:













        • Decelerates shoulder internal rotation














      Isometric Function:













        • Posterior stabilization of the shoulder joint














      Related Muscles













        • Supraspinatus








        • Subscapularis








        • Infraspinatus














      Antagonists:













      • Deltoids









      • Others depending on motion










      Teres Minor Muscle









  • Subscapularis
    Origin:













      • Subscapular fossa (groove) on the anterior scapula













    Insertion:













      • Lesser tubercle of the (proximal anterior) humerus















    Major Arteries:













      • Transverse cervical artery








      • Subscapular artery














    Neural Innervation:













      • Upper subscapular nerve








      • Lower subscapular nerve (C5, C6)








      • Concentric Functions:













        • Anteriior rotation the humerus














      Eccentric Functions:













        • Anterior & posterior stabilization of the shoulder joint














      Isometric Function:













        • Anterior & posterior stabilization of the shoulder joint














      Related Muscles













        • Supraspinatus








        • Infraspinatus








        • Teres Minor














      Antagonists:













      • Deltoid (Posterior Fibers)









      • Infraspinatus









      • Teres Minor


















      • Subscapularis Muscle
      • Origin:

  • Core
  • Rectus Abdominis







  • External Obliques







  • Internal Obliques







  • Transverse Abdominis







  • Quadratus Lumborum







  • Multifidus







  • Erector Spinae
  • Rectus Abdominis
    Origin:










      • Crest of pubis










    Insertion:










      • Costal cartilage of ribs 5-7 & the xiphoid process of sternum












    Major Arteries:










      • Inferior epigastric artery











    Neural Innervation:










      • Segmentally by thoraco-abdominal nerves (T7-T12)Rectus Abdominis Muscle



      Anatomy












        • Lumbar flexion of the spine














        • Decelerates extension & rotation of the spine














        • Stabilizes the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex














        • Transverse Abdominis




        • External Obliques




        • Internal Obliques














        • Erector Spinae








      Concentric Functions:

      Eccentric Functions:

      Isometric Function:

      Related Muscles

      Antagonist



  • External Obliques
    • Origin:
      • External surfaces of ribs 5-12 (Lower 7 or 8 ribs)

    • Insertion:
      • Anterior 2/3 of the iliac crest & the lateral 2/3 of the inguinal ligament


    • Major Artery:


    • Neural Innervation:
      • Lower 6 intercostal nerve
      • Subcostal nerve
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Flexion, rotation and lateral reflection of the (lumbar spine) torso

      • Eccentric Functions:
        • Decelerates extension & rotation of the (lumbar) spine

      • Isometric Function:
        • Dynamically stabilizes the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex

      • Related Muscles
        • Quadratus Lumborum
        • Rectus Abdominis
        • Transverse Abdominis
        • External Obliques Muscle

        • Anatomy
  • Internal Obliques
    Internal Obliques Muscle

    Anatomy

    • Origin:
      • Lateral 2/3 of the inguinal ligament, anterior 2/3 of the iliac crest & the lumbodorsal fascia.
    • Insertion:
      • Linea alba, xiphoid process and the inferior (lower 2-4) ribs.


    • Major Artery:


    • Neural Innervation:
      • Anterior primary rami of T6-L2
      • Neural filaments from iliohypogastric & ilioinguinal nerves

    • Concentric Functions:
      • Flexion, rotation and lateral reflection of the (lumbar spine) torso

    • Eccentric Functions:
      • Decelerates extension & rotation of the (lumbar) spine

    • Isometric Function:
      • Dynamically stabilizes the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex & intersegmental spinal stabilization

    • Related Muscles
      • Quadratus Lumborum
      • Rectus Abdominis
      • Transverse Abdominis
  • Transverse Abdominis
    Transverse Abdominis Muscle


    • Origin:
      • Inner rim of iliac crest, inguinal ligament, thoracolumbar fascia, & costal cartilages of inferior 6 ribs
    • Insertion:
      • Xiphiod process, linea alba, and pubis


    • Major Arteries:


    • Neural Innervation:
      • Thoracic spinal nerves T8-T12
      • Iliohypogastric nerve
      • Ilioinguinal nerve
    • Anatomy
    • Concentric Functions:
      • Pulls abdominal wall inward (forced expiration) & increases intra-abdominal pressure

    • Eccentric Functions:
      • Dynamically stabilizes the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex during functional movements

    • Isometric Function:
      • Dynamically stabilizes the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex

    • Related Muscles
      • Internal Obliques
      • External Obliuqes
      • Rectus Abdominis
    • Antagonist
  • Quadratus Lumborum
    Quadratus Lumborum Muscle

    • Anatomy
    • Origin:
      • Posterior inner lip of iliac crest & iliolumbar ligament
    • Insertion:
      • Transverse processes of the upper 4 lumbar vertebrae & the lower border of 12th (last) rib



    • Major Arteries:
      • Lumbar arteries
      • Lumbar branch of iliolumbar artery

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Lumbar nerves L1-L4
      • Subcostal nerve (T12)

    • Concentric Functions:
      • Lateral flexion of the spine & extension of the lumbar spine (w/ bilateral contraction)

    • Eccentric Functions:
      • Dynamically stabilizes lumbo-pelvic hip complex

    • Isometric Function:
      • Dynamically stabilizes lumbo-pelvic hip complex

    • Related Muscles
      • Internal Obliques
      • External Obliques
      • Iliopsoas
      • Erector Spinae

    • Antagonists:
      • Rectus Abdominis
  • Multifidus
    • Multifidus Muscle
    • Anatomy
    • Origin:
      • Sacrum, sacroiliac ligament, spinous processes of the lumbar, thoracic & last 4 cervical vertebrae
    • Insertion:
      • Lumbar and cervical spinous processes (up to C2)


    • Major Artery:


    • Neural Innervation:
      • Posterior primary rami of all spinal nerves

    • Concentric Functions:
      • Acceleration of spinal extension and contralateral rotation

    • Eccentric Functions:
      • Deceleration of spinal flexion and ipsilateral rotation

    • Isometric Function:
      • Stabilization of the lumbar spine

    • Related Muscles
      • Erector Spinae

    • Antagonists:
      • Rectus Abdominis (during extension of the spine)
      • Internal Obliques (during extension of the spine)
      • External Obliques (during extension of the spine)
  • Erector Spinae
    Erector Spinae Muscle


    • Anatomy
    • Origin:
      • Iliocastalis
        • Lower posterior surface of the sacrum & posterior ribs
      • Longissimus
        • Transverse processes of lumbar & thoracic vertebrae
      • Spinalis
        • Transverse processes of thoracic & cervical vertebrae & ligamentum nuchae (posterior neck ligaments)

    • Insertion:
      • Iliocastalis
        • Transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae & posterior ribs
      • Longissimus
        • Transverse processes of the cervical & throacic vertebrae & the mastoid process of the skull
      • Spinalis
        • Spinous processes of the thoracic & cervical vertebrae & the occipital bone of the skull



    • Major Arteries:
      • Iliocastalis
        • Intercostal arteries
        • Lumbar arteries
      • Longissimus
        • Lateral sacral artery
      • Spinalis
        • Lateral sacral artery


    • Neural Innervation:
      • Iliocastalis
        • Posterior branch of spinal nerve
      • Longissimus
        • Posterior branch of spinal nerve
      • Spinalis
        • Posterior branch of spinal nerve


    • Concentric Functions:
      • Iliocastalis
        • Lateral flexion of the (thoracic, lumbar & cervical) spine
        • Rotation of the (thoracic, lumbar & cervical) spine
      • Longissimus
        • Extension of the (thoracic, lumbar & cervical) spine
        • Lateral flexion of the (cervical) spine
        • Rotation of the (cervical) spine
      • Spinalis
        • Extension of the (thoracic, lumbar & cervical) spine



    • Eccentric Functions:
      • Decelerates flexion, rotation and lateral flexion of the spine

    • Isometric Function:
      • Dynamically stabilizes the spine during functional movements

    • Related Muscles:
      • Quadratus Lumborum
      • Splenius
      • Multifidus

    • Antagonist:
      • Rectus Abdominis
  • Hip & Pelvic Girdle
    • Iliopsoas
    • Sartorius
    • Rectus Femoris
    • Tensor Fasciae Latae
    • Gluteus Medius
    • Gluteus Minimus
    • Gluteus Maximus
    • Piriformis
    • Hamstrings Muscle Group
    • Biceps Femoris
    • Semitendinosus
    • Semimembranosus
    • AAdducor Complex
    • Adductor Magnus
    • Adductor Brevis
    • Adductor Longus
    • Pectineus
    • Gracilis
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