almaclaire psych 2

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almaclaire psych 2
2011-10-05 10:28:13

psych 2 chapter 6
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  1. What is the definition of learning?
    Relatively permanent change in behavior or mental processes resultin gfrom practice or experience.
  2. What is the definition of conditioning?
    The process of learning associations between environmental stimuli and behavioral responses.
  3. What is classical conditioning?
    Learning that occurs when a previously neutral stimulus (NS) is paired (associated) with an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) to elicit a conditioned response (CR) (Pavlov)
  4. What is a neutral stimulus?
    Before conditioning doesn't naturally elicit response of interest
  5. What is an unconditioned stimulus?
    Elicits unconditioned response without prior conditioning.
  6. What is an unconditioned response?
    An unlearned reaction to UCS occuring without prior conditioning
  7. What is a conditioned stimulus?
    A previously neutral stimulus that, through repeated pairings with UCS, now causes a CR
  8. What is a conditioned response?
    A learned reaction to a CS occurring because of prior repeated pairings with an unconditioned stimulus.
  9. What is a conditioned emotional response?
    Emotional responses are classically conditioned to a previously neutral stimulus. ( watson and albert and the little ray)
  10. What is a stimulus generalization?
    A learned response to stimuli that are similar to the original conditioned stimuli. Kids tend to generalize more often
  11. Describe extinction.
    It is a gradual weakening or suppression of a previously conditioned response
  12. Describe spontaneos recovery.
    It is a reappearance of a previously extinguished conditioned response.
  13. What is operant conditioning?
    Learning in which voluntary responses are controlled by their consequences
  14. What is the Law of effect and who contributed it?
    • The probability of an action being repeated is strengthened when followed by a pleasant or satisfying consequence.
    • If you do something and it has a good consequence, you would do it again, and vice versa.
    • Thorndike
  15. Name the two basic principles in operant conditioning and describe them.
    • primary reinforcers- normally satisfy an unlearned biological need EG food
    • secondary reinforcers-learned value EGmoney, praise
  16. Describe the other operant conditioning principle positive reinforcement.
    Adding or presenting a stimulus, which strengthens a response and makes it more likely to occur
  17. What are the 4 steps to uncrease desirable behaviors?
    • Positive reinforcement:
    • 1. a desirable behavior is displayed
    • 2. The reinforcer is temporarilly contiguous to the behavior.
    • 3. The reinforcer is contingent on the behavior.
    • 4. The reinforcer is a desirable consequence.
  18. What is negative reinforcement and what is it not?
    • Negative reinforment is taking away or removing a stimulus owhich strengthens a response and makes it more likely to recur EG a headache removed after taking an asprin. EG making a final exxam optional for students who acheive a score of over 90% on all other tests.
    • It is not a punishment.
    • It is removing an aversive consequence when the desirable behavior is displayed. REMOVAL
  19. Explain the operant conditiongs principle of shaping.
    Reinforcement is delivered after successive appoximations of the desired response.
  20. Describe punishment as a operant conditioning principle.
    • If is weakening a response.
    • Positive punishmentadding or presenting a stimulus that weakens a response and makes it less likely to recur EG shouting
    • Negative punishment-taking away or removing a stimulus that weakens a response and makes it less likely to recur EG restriction, jail
  21. What are two ineffective forms of punishment? Describe.
    • Physical punishment- diplay negative emotions and avoidance toward punisher. Kids are shown to model the physical behavior andbe more aggressive.
    • psychological punishment-consist of embarrassing, humiliating, yelling or screaming. Shows kids an out-of-control way of handling stress.