Science chapter 1

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oogpister
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106614
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Science chapter 1
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2011-10-05 11:59:22
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science chapter 1
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  1. who came up with binomial nomenclature?
    Carolus Linnaeus
  2. How do the branches on a cladogram show relationships among organisms?
    Each branch follows a new characteristic (lungs, fur, opposable thumbs)

    Each characteristic is observed in all the species to its right.
  3. Who was the first to classify organisms?
    Aristotle
  4. Why is maintaining homeostasis important to an organism?
    • maintaining certain conditions ensures that cells can function
    • if cells cannot function normally, then an organism might become sick or even die
  5. stimulus
    a change in an organism's environment that causes a response

    • internal: hunger, thirst
    • external: temperature
  6. What are the "characteristics of life"?
    • organized
    • grow and develop
    • reproduce
    • respond
    • maintain certain internal conditions
    • use energy
  7. what is the smallest unit of life?
    the cell
  8. what happens in development?
    multicellular organisms increase in size, cells become specialized
  9. multicellular
    living things that are made of 2 or more cells
  10. homeostasis
    an organisms ability to maintain steady internal conditions
  11. binomial nomenclature
    gives each organism a two-word scientific name
  12. species
    a group of organisms with similar traits
  13. genus
    a group of similar species
  14. cladogram
    a branched diagram that show the relationships among organisms
  15. light microscope
    uses light and lenses to enlarge an image
  16. compound microscope
    one lens to magnify an object
  17. electron microscope
    use a magnetic field to focus a beam of electrons through an object of onto an objects surface
  18. unicellular
    living things with one cell
  19. organism
    things that have al the characteristics of life
  20. living things are classified into different groups based on
    physical or molecular similarities
  21. why are scientific names important?
    a common name may refer to many types of organisms

    there may be several common names for one organism

    • there is only one scientific name for one organism
    • cuts down on confusion
  22. how do you determine a microscopes magnification?
    multiply the power of the ocular lens by the power of the objective lens
  23. what is magnification compared to resolution?
    magnification makes objects appear larger than it really is

    resolution is how clearly a magnified object can be seen
  24. how do you write a scientific name?
    • first word is the genus name, capitalized (Haplopelma lividium)
    • sometimes just the initial (H. lividium)
    • second word is species, usually a description of appearance or behavior
  25. classification
    • Domain->Kingdom Phyllum
    • Class Order Family
    • Genus Species
  26. What is the currant classification system called?
    Systematics
  27. What are the 3 domains?
    • Bacteria
    • Archaea (r-key-uh)
    • Eukarya (u-care-e-uh)

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