Hobbes claims human nature is dark. People can't be good unless threat of punishment
The law, contract that ends the "state of nature", limits freedom to achieve peace.
Another word for contract
People are naturally good and seek to do good things
The view that all of our behavior is selfish or self-interested.
Morality is relative to the time and place one is in. "Murder is wrong" is more of an autobiographical statement alike "I don't like chinese food" it doesn't hold as a moral fact or truth.
Things you absolutely must do or absolutely not do.
William G. Sumner
"Right" way passed on by our ancestors. "Ancestrial ghost"
one's own way of life is preferable to all others and should be the basis which other ideas (and cultures) are evaluated.
believe "moral facts" exsist.
God guides us or "everything happens for a reason" "Universal Causation"
"Nature x Nurture" genetics and politcal, economical, social, clamatic, conditions of life shape us in some way.
Some in explicable, invisible force(s) dictate our inevitable destiny
Determinism and free will can co-exist
Free choices and determined but not fated
Real freedom requires doing the right thing for the right reason
Humans are autonomous, self-governing beings who can make choices, decisions, and take some measure of control over their destinies.
Liberatarian Free Will
God doesn't assign us our characters, nature does not shape us, Genes do not limit us
Satre - determinism a cop-out. We are responsible, not only for our ethical choices but our lives. We were supposed to "invent ourselves"
If people can be held responsible it follows that they can be punished. The threat of punishment to be a powerful motive to do the "right thing".
Makes us want to make the person better, not make them pay. "Not what they deserve but what they need"
Nagel - "The kind of person you are...Your inclinations, capacities and temperment"
The penalty for murder is far greater than that of intented murder. Retribution is based on moral luck. Even though two people intended physical harm to someone, one person succeeds, the other had better "moral luck".