fractures

Card Set Information

Author:
nurse&dad
ID:
106630
Filename:
fractures
Updated:
2011-10-05 18:29:07
Tags:
neuro muscularskeletal
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Description:
interventions
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  1. What is a fracture?
    Happens when bone is not strong enough to support the energy applied to it
  2. How are fractures classified?
    • Extent of break
    • Extent of soft tissue damage
    • Grade
    • Cause
  3. Extent of break.
    • Complete: Breaks accross entire width of bone-2 evident sections
    • Incomplete: Break only through section of bone-not in 2 distinct sections
  4. Soft tissue damage.
    • Open: skin over break not intact resulting in open wound
    • Closed: skin intact
  5. Grade
    • Grade I: least severe
    • Grade II: open fracture
    • Grade III: damage to skin, muscle, nerve- open fracture > 6-8 cm
  6. Cause
    • Pathologic: trauma to bone that is weakened by disease
    • Fatigue/stress: excessive stress/strain on bone
  7. Assessments
    • Shoulder/upper arm: pt standing or sitting
    • Distal arm: pt supine-elevate extremity to reduce swelling
    • Lower extremities/pelvis: pt in supine position
  8. Diagnostics
    • MRI: determine amount of soft tissue damage
    • CT: more complex structures-pelvic fx
    • X-ray:
  9. Complications
    • Acute compartment syndrome
    • Crush groove
    • Hypovolemic shock
    • Fat embolism
    • Infection
    • DVT
  10. Non surgical interventions
    Reduction/immobilization: bandage, splint, cast, traction; NV assessments; monitor for complications, cast care
  11. Surgical interventions
    • ORIF: open reduction c internal fixation-pins, screws, plates, rods, prosthesis
    • External fixation: fx reduced, pins inserted into small incisions, held together by external frame; monitor for infammation/infection q8-12h
  12. Pre-op
    • Pre-op: informed consent, pt understanding
    • Post-op: VS, bowel sounds, TCDB, drainage, DVT/fat embolism, pain control

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