socio exam 1.txt

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  1. The sociological perspective ________.
    examines human behavior by placing it within its broader social context
  2. Sociologist C. Wright Mills believed that each society has specific characteristics - such as its ideas about the proper roles of men and women. (T of F)
  3. To find out why people do what they do, sociologists look at ________.
    social location
  4. Sociology emerged about the middle of the________,
    1800s, when social observers began to use scientific methods to test their theories
  5. Who originated the grandiose view that sociologists would reform the entire society, making it a better place to live?
    Auguste Comte
  6. Auguste Comte launched an early version of sociological study due to his interest in...
    social order and the elements that hold societies together
  7. What process was applied to questions about social life, leading to the birth of sociology?
    the scientific method
  8. What is "social Darwinism"?
    a view of the development and growth of societies that is based on "the survival of the fittest"
  9. According to Emile Durkheim's research, the primary reason for varying rates of suicide in European nations was social class. (T of F)
  10. What is true regarding religion the theories of Max Weber?
    He saw religion as the central force for social change.
  11. In 1837, ________ published ________, based on observations and interviews regarding gender, slavery, prison life, and the courts.
    Harriet Martineau
  12. Early female sociologists often wrote extensively, worked with the poor, and fought social inequality. These women were considered to be ________ by their contemporaries.
    social workers
  13. Jane Addams and her associates joined W. E. B. Du Bois in his work to combat racial injustice by founding ________, which addressed these issues.
    the NAACP
  14. What is one primary difference between basic sociology and applied sociology?
    Applied sociology uses sociology to solve problems.
  15. ________ believe that human beings attach meaning to certain things to define themselves and their relationships to other human beings.
    Symbolic interactionists
  16. Robert Merton used the term "function" to describe the beneficial consequences of people's actions, whether intended or unintended. (T of F)
  17. Which sociological perspective sees society as composed of various groups that compete for scarce resources?
    conflict theory
  18. What is one major difference between microsociology and macrosociology?
    Microsociology focuses on small-scale patterns of human interaction, while macrosociology focuses on large-scale patterns.
  19. Which theoretical perspective is usually associated with micro-level analysis, or the examination of human relationships?
    symbolic interactionism
  20. A research method in which you ask individuals a series of questions is a(n) ________.
  21. "What do you like about school?" is an example of a(n) ________.
    open-ended question
  22. In a random sample, everyone in your population has the same chance of being included in the study. (T of F)
  23. All sociologists agree that it is unethical for researchers to misrepresent themselves.(T of F)
  24. ________ refers to the idea that a sociologist's beliefs about what is good or desirable in life and the way the world ought to be should not affect social research.
    Value free
  25. The term "________" refers to the interconnections among nations due to advances in technology, communication, trade, and travel.
  26. One broad concept behind the study of sociology is to ________.
    help people see their own world in a different light
  27. Sociologists generally agree that our ideas and desires are ________.
    highly influenced by our social groups
  28. Growing up as a female or a male has little influence on how you feel about yourself or how you relate to others. (T or F)
  29. Researchers in the natural sciences, as well as social sciences use the scientific method to objectively and systematically test their theories. (T or F)
  30. Who was the first to propose the idea of applying the scientific method to study the social world?
    Auguste Comte
  31. As the staunch voice of capitalism, the Wall Street Journal once named Karl Marx and Sigmund Freud as among the three greatest modern thinkers, along with Albert Einstein. (T or F)
  32. Who is well known for the passionate view that the ongoing exploitation of workers by capitalists is the underlying foundation for all human societies, and that revolution against the ruling class is the only solution?
    Karl Marx
  33. In the early days of developing sociological studies, ________ were often categorized as social reformers rather than sociologists.
  34. W.E.B. Du Bois became the first African American to ________.
    earn a doctorate at Harvard
  35. Since its early days, North American sociology has struggled with two apparently contradictory aims - analyzing society versus reforming society. (T or F)
  36. Who believed our freedom was threatened by the coalescing interests of a group called the power elite?
    C. Wright Mills
  37. We attach meaning to ________, and they act as the key to understanding how we view the world and communicate with one another.
  38. By 1945, people began to see marriage as ________.
    an arrangement based on attraction and feelings of intimacy that could be broken when feelings changed
  39. Emile Durkheim viewed society as a kind of living organism
    just as a person or animal has organs that functions together, so does society. (T or F)
  40. If government officials become concerned about our low rate of childbirth and offer a $10,000 bonus for every child born to a married couple, this would be an example of a ________.
    manifest function
  41. As in any science, various approaches and perspectives exist. In sociology, the views of several broad perspectives may offer opposing interpretations, but once combined they paint a more comprehensive picture of social life. (T or F)
  42. ________ stress that society is composed of groups that are competing with one another for scarce resources.
    Conflict theorists
  43. Some sociologists point out that ________ allowed females to meet their survival needs and take part in a socialized world outside their homes.
  44. Your hypothesis will need variables, which are precise ways to measure outcomes. (T or F)
  45. __________ means that if other researchers use your operational definitions, their findings will be consistent with yours.
  46. Individuals intended to represent the population to be studied are often referred to as a ________.
  47. While ethics clearly forbids the falsification of results, they do not condemn plagiarism - that is, using someone else's work without their permission. (T or F)
  48. All sociologists take the position that their goal should be to advance the understanding of life- to gather data on any topic that interests them and to use the most appropriate theory to interpret their findings. (T or F)
  49. Seeing how other cultures' societies affect their behavior and orientations to life ________.
    helps us to understand how our society influences what we do and how we feel about life
  50. Today, the worldwide center for the discipline of sociology is ________.
    located in the United States due to its dominance in the field
  51. Who stressed that the scientific methodshould be used in sociology, but never actuallly applied it?
    Aguste Comte
  52. Who founded positivism?
    Aguste Comte
  53. Who coined the term "sociology"?
    Aguste Comte
  54. Did Aguste Comte ever hold scientific studies?
  55. Who is considered the 2nd founder of sociology?
    Herbert Spencer
  56. What did Herbert Spencer think the main goal of sociology should be?
    Should be used to find out more about human behavior, NOT be used for social reform.
  57. Which sociologist strongly believed in social darwinism?
    Herbert Spencer
  58. What was Herbert's Spencer's generally view on how socities evoloved?
    That survival of the fittest did take place. Socities evolve from "berbaric" to "civilized" and only the intelligent survive. It should remain this way unless "do-gooders" misguide people and get in the way by helping those who are less fit survive.
  59. Which sociologist felt that they could change society by revolution?
    Karl Marx
  60. The "class conflict" engine of human history was started by
    Karl Marx.
  61. Karl marx claimed that society was made up of two classes. The _______ and the _______.
    Burgeoisie and proletariat
  62. Karl marx believed that the ______________ would bring a new society that is "class-less" and free of explotation, where people work to their abilities and recieve goods and services according to needs.
    "Worker's Revolution"
  63. Karl Marx believed in communism. (T or F)
  64. Who's goal was it to get sociology as it's own discipline?
    Emile Durkheim
  65. What was Emile Durkheim given in 1887?
    Academic appointment (sociology) at the University of Bordeaux.
  66. What was the important research that Emile Durkheim did?
    Proving that underlying social factors feul the suicide rate.
  67. What did Emile Durkheim identify as the key factor in determind suicide risk?
    Social intergration
  68. What was the principle behind Emile Durkheim's suicide research?
    Human behavior cannot be understood on the terms of the individual alone, we must always examine the social forces that affect the individual as well.
  69. What did Max Weber believe was the central force in social change was?
  70. Whose sociological concept birthed capitalism?
    Max Weber
  71. How did Weber's concept embody the spirit of capitalism?
    Stating that protestants would be ready to invest capital in order to make more money to be considered favorable in gods eyes.
  72. Who was Marion Talbot?
    An associate editor of the American Journal of Sociology
  73. who was Grace Abbott?
    First chief of the U.S child's Bureau
  74. Who was Frances Perkins?
    First woman to hold cabinent position = secretary of labor
  75. Who was Jane Addams?
    Nobel peace prize winner (sociologist)
  76. Who published "Society in America"?
    Harriet Martineau
  77. What was Farriet Martineau most famous for?
    Translation Comte's ideas into English
  78. Who embraced revolutionary marxism?
    W.E.B Dubois
  79. Who was a major sociologist of the 1940's?
    Talcott Parsons
  80. Was Talcott Parsons for Social reform or social theory?
    Social theory
  81. Was C. Wright Mills all for social theory or social reform?
    Social reform
  82. Why did C. Wright Mills was social reform?
    Claimed that sociologists missed the point that our freedom was threatened.
  83. When did C. Wright Mills' ideas become popular?
    in the 60's and 70's after his death by social activists.
  84. Who created the term power Elite?
    C. Wright Mills.
  85. What are the two contradictory aims to the study of sociology?
    Analysis of society vs. Social reform
  86. Who were the three peopple that created stmbolic interactionism?
    Charles horton Cooley, William I. Thomas and George Herbert Mead.
  87. What was the major symbolic interactionism study based on?
    Changes and roles in marriages over the years
  88. Who were the three sociologists that viewed society as a living organism?
    Aguste Comte, Herbert Spencer and Emile Durkheim
  89. Robert Merton dismissed the arganic analogy used by Comte, Spence and Durkheim, but did maintained the essence of what?
  90. According to functionalists, what keeps a groups balanced?
  91. What are dysfunctions?
    Consequences that harm a society and undermine the system's equilibrium
  92. Manifest functions
    Action INTENDED to help some part of a system.
  93. Latent Functions
    action UNINTENDED, has consequences that HELP asystem adjust
  94. Latent dysfunctions
    action UNITENDED, HURTS the system
  95. What perspective stresses that industrialization and urbanization undermined traditionalf functions of the family?
  96. When family loses function it becomes more...
  97. Who is the founder of the conflict theory?
    Karl Marx
  98. The key to human history is ...
    Class conflict
  99. Who stated that conflict was more likely to develop among people who are in close relationsips?
    Lewis Coser
  100. What gave women more alternatives as opposed to being exploited?
  101. From conflict perspective, high divorce rates does not mean that marriage has weakened, but that women are makingheadway with their historical struggle with....
  102. WHat are the three major theories presented in chapter 1?
    Symbolic interactionism, functionalism and conflict theory
  103. Why are marriages failing according to symbolic interactionists?
    Because industrializationa and urbanization changed marital roles and led to a redefinition of love, marriage, children and divorce,
  104. Why are marriages failing according to functional analysists?
    A social change erodes the traditional functions of the family, family ties weaken and the divorce rate increases.
  105. Why are marriages failing according to conflict theorists?
    When men control economic life, the divorce rate is low
  106. Who said that if the theory is not connected to research it will just be abstract and empty?
    C. Wright Mills
  107. List the steps of the research model in chronological order.
    • a topic
    • 2.define the problem
    • the literature
    • 4.formulate a hypothesis
    • 5.Choose a research method
    • 6.collect the data
    • 7.analyze the data
    • 8.share the results
  108. What are the 7 types of research methods?
    • surveys
    • Participant observation
    • Case studies
    • Secondary analysis
    • Documents
    • Experiments
    • Unobtrusive measures
  109. What is causation?
    A change in one variable is caused by another variable.
  110. What are the three conditions that are necessary for causation?
    Correlation, TemporalPriority, (NO) Spurious Correlation
  111. What is a correlation?
    When two variables exist together
  112. What is temporal priority?
    One thing happens before something else does
  113. What is spurious correlation?
    When there is a cause that may be some underlying third variable
  114. What was the significance of Laud humphrey?
    Raises questions on whether deliberate misrepresentation is ethical to obtain research data. (undercover in bath houses, different cover for home visits data to obtain extended data)
  115. There are no _______ norms
  116. There is nothing inherently ________ about material culture
  117. Humans usually take their ________ for granted
  118. We can usually be aware of another ______ but less aware about ours.
  119. Who said " the last thing a fish would ever notice would be water" ?
    Ralph Linton
  120. Except in unusual circumstances, more characteristics of our culture remain....
    Imperceptible to us.
  121. What is the "culture within us"?
    The learned and shared way of believing and doing.
  122. What becomes the lens through which we perceive and evaluate our surroundings?
  123. People usually don't realize their own culture until...
    They are abruptly put into another culture.
  124. Who developed the concept of ethonocentrism?
    William Sumner
  125. Who said "one own's group is the center of everything and all others are scaled and rated w/ reference to it"
    William Sumner
  126. What is the positive of ethnocentrism?
    Creates in-group loyalties
  127. What is the negative of ethnocentrism?
    Can lead to discriminations against people whose ways are different.
  128. Culture provides implicit instructions that tell us...
    What we ought to do and what we ought to think
  129. Although culture differs, it itself is...
  130. Culture provides moral ______.
    Imperative (culture we internalize and think is right)
  131. Culture provides a fundamental basis for our ___________.
    Decision making
  132. Who published the book "Sick Societies"?
    Robert Edgerton
  133. Robert edgerton suggested that we develop a scale for evaluating cultures on their .....
    Quality of life
  134. According to Robert edgerton, cultural values that result in exploitation are ______ to those that enhance people's lives.
  135. The components of a symbolic culture are...
    Gestures, languages, values&norms&sanctions, folkways&more
  136. If you don't learn the gestures of a country you cannot....
    Get along
  137. There is a disagreement that gestures are universal because....
    Emotions are universal.
  138. Each word in a language is actually a _______.
  139. Although humans have language, there is nothing ________ about the meanings to particular sounds
  140. Language allows cultures to .....
  141. What are the five effects of language?
    • Allows human experience to accumulate
    • Social or shared past
    • Social of shared future
    • Shared perspectives
    • Shared, goal-driven behavior
  142. What is the sociological significance of language?
    It takes us beyond the world of primates and allows culture to develop.
  143. Language frees us from the _______, actually giving us a social past & future.
  144. _________ is the basis of culture.
  145. Language allows us to establish underlying _______ for our activities.
  146. Who are the two anthropologists' that studied the Hopi Indians in 1930's?
    Edward Sapir & Benjamin Whorf
  147. What did Sapir and whorf thought they noticed about the Hopi Indians.
    Had no words to distinguish past, present & future.
  148. What did Sapir and whorf conclude regarding their study on the Hopi Indians?
    Language has embedded within it was of looking at the world.
  149. Who explained folkways and mores by using the public decency example?
    Ian Robertson
  150. One group's folkway can be another person's _____.
  151. The folkways and mores of a subculture may be the opposite of ________.
    Mainstream culture
  152. A man topless is a ....
  153. A man with no pants is a .....
  154. What happens when someone breaks a taboo?
    The individual is usually judged unfit to live in the same society as others.
  155. What are the sanctions for committing a taboo?
    Prision, banishment or death.
  156. Countercultures do not have to be _________.
  157. What are the 10 u.s core values according to robin Williams?
    • Achievement and success
    • Individualism
    • Hard work
    • Efficiency & praticality
    • Science & technology
    • Material comfort
    • Freedom
    • Democracy
    • Equality
    • Group superiority
  158. What are the 3 updated values?
    • Education
    • Religiosity
    • Romantic love
  159. When can someone see a major force for social change in a society?
    A point of value contradiction
  160. What are the five emerging values in the u.s?
    • Leisure
    • Self-fulfillment
    • Physical fitness
    • Youthfulness
    • Concern for the environment
  161. Values do not just happen, there are related to....
    The condirions of a society
  162. What are culture wars?
    Refers to the clash in values b/t traditionalists and those advocating change.
  163. Value gives a view that produce what life _______, not what it is.
    Ought to be
  164. Who found that activities and customs are present in all cultures, but the specific customs differ from one group to another.
    George Murdock
  165. Although there is universal human activities, there is no universally accepted .....
    Way of doing then
  166. What sets the framework for a group's nonmaterial culture?
  167. What does technology change?
    The way people think and relate to one another.
  168. Who coined the term cultural lag?
    William ogburn
  169. What did William ogburn point out?
    That a group's material culture usually changes first, w/ the nonmaterial culture lagging behind.
  170. The way of looking at the world that allows people to understand unfamiliar societies and see their own society in a different light is known as ________.
    the sociological perspective
  171. What term is used for a group of people who share a culture and a territory?
    a society
  172. C. Wright Mills suggested that external influences, not internal instincts, explain our thoughts, motivations, and behaviors. (T or F)
  173. When did sociology emerge as a science?
    The mid 1800's
  174. How did the evolution of sociology occur to its status as a legitimate area of study?
    Sociology largely emerged due to upheaval, revolution, and empire building
  175. Auguste Comte casually observed human behavior rather than performing scientific research. As a result, ________.
    his ideas are well taken, but his conclusions have been abandoned as unscientific
  176. Herbert Spencer coined the term ________ to describe his theory that the strongest among us will develop and advance our societies.
    "survival of the fittest"
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socio exam 1.txt
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