examines human behavior by placing it within its broader social context
Sociologist C. Wright Mills believed that each society has specific characteristics - such as its ideas about the proper roles of men and women. (T of F)
To find out why people do what they do, sociologists look at ________.
Sociology emerged about the middle of the________,
1800s, when social observers began to use scientific methods to test their theories
Who originated the grandiose view that sociologists would reform the entire society, making it a better place to live?
Auguste Comte launched an early version of sociological study due to his interest in...
social order and the elements that hold societies together
What process was applied to questions about social life, leading to the birth of sociology?
the scientific method
What is "social Darwinism"?
a view of the development and growth of societies that is based on "the survival of the fittest"
According to Emile Durkheim's research, the primary reason for varying rates of suicide in European nations was social class. (T of F)
What is true regarding religion the theories of Max Weber?
He saw religion as the central force for social change.
In 1837, ________ published ________, based on observations and interviews regarding gender, slavery, prison life, and the courts.
Early female sociologists often wrote extensively, worked with the poor, and fought social inequality. These women were considered to be ________ by their contemporaries.
Jane Addams and her associates joined W. E. B. Du Bois in his work to combat racial injustice by founding ________, which addressed these issues.
What is one primary difference between basic sociology and applied sociology?
Applied sociology uses sociology to solve problems.
________ believe that human beings attach meaning to certain things to define themselves and their relationships to other human beings.
Robert Merton used the term "function" to describe the beneficial consequences of people's actions, whether intended or unintended. (T of F)
Which sociological perspective sees society as composed of various groups that compete for scarce resources?
What is one major difference between microsociology and macrosociology?
Microsociology focuses on small-scale patterns of human interaction, while macrosociology focuses on large-scale patterns.
Which theoretical perspective is usually associated with micro-level analysis, or the examination of human relationships?
A research method in which you ask individuals a series of questions is a(n) ________.
"What do you like about school?" is an example of a(n) ________.
In a random sample, everyone in your population has the same chance of being included in the study. (T of F)
All sociologists agree that it is unethical for researchers to misrepresent themselves.(T of F)
________ refers to the idea that a sociologist's beliefs about what is good or desirable in life and the way the world ought to be should not affect social research.
The term "________" refers to the interconnections among nations due to advances in technology, communication, trade, and travel.
One broad concept behind the study of sociology is to ________.
help people see their own world in a different light
Sociologists generally agree that our ideas and desires are ________.
highly influenced by our social groups
Growing up as a female or a male has little influence on how you feel about yourself or how you relate to others. (T or F)
Researchers in the natural sciences, as well as social sciences use the scientific method to objectively and systematically test their theories. (T or F)
Who was the first to propose the idea of applying the scientific method to study the social world?
As the staunch voice of capitalism, the Wall Street Journal once named Karl Marx and Sigmund Freud as among the three greatest modern thinkers, along with Albert Einstein. (T or F)
Who is well known for the passionate view that the ongoing exploitation of workers by capitalists is the underlying foundation for all human societies, and that revolution against the ruling class is the only solution?
In the early days of developing sociological studies, ________ were often categorized as social reformers rather than sociologists.
W.E.B. Du Bois became the first African American to ________.
earn a doctorate at Harvard
Since its early days, North American sociology has struggled with two apparently contradictory aims - analyzing society versus reforming society. (T or F)
Who believed our freedom was threatened by the coalescing interests of a group called the power elite?
C. Wright Mills
We attach meaning to ________, and they act as the key to understanding how we view the world and communicate with one another.
By 1945, people began to see marriage as ________.
an arrangement based on attraction and feelings of intimacy that could be broken when feelings changed
Emile Durkheim viewed society as a kind of living organism
just as a person or animal has organs that functions together, so does society. (T or F)
If government officials become concerned about our low rate of childbirth and offer a $10,000 bonus for every child born to a married couple, this would be an example of a ________.
As in any science, various approaches and perspectives exist. In sociology, the views of several broad perspectives may offer opposing interpretations, but once combined they paint a more comprehensive picture of social life. (T or F)
________ stress that society is composed of groups that are competing with one another for scarce resources.
Some sociologists point out that ________ allowed females to meet their survival needs and take part in a socialized world outside their homes.
Your hypothesis will need variables, which are precise ways to measure outcomes. (T or F)
__________ means that if other researchers use your operational definitions, their findings will be consistent with yours.
Individuals intended to represent the population to be studied are often referred to as a ________.
While ethics clearly forbids the falsification of results, they do not condemn plagiarism - that is, using someone else's work without their permission. (T or F)
All sociologists take the position that their goal should be to advance the understanding of life- to gather data on any topic that interests them and to use the most appropriate theory to interpret their findings. (T or F)
Seeing how other cultures' societies affect their behavior and orientations to life ________.
helps us to understand how our society influences what we do and how we feel about life
Today, the worldwide center for the discipline of sociology is ________.
located in the United States due to its dominance in the field
Who stressed that the scientific methodshould be used in sociology, but never actuallly applied it?
Who founded positivism?
Who coined the term "sociology"?
Did Aguste Comte ever hold scientific studies?
Who is considered the 2nd founder of sociology?
What did Herbert Spencer think the main goal of sociology should be?
Should be used to find out more about human behavior, NOT be used for social reform.
Which sociologist strongly believed in social darwinism?
What was Herbert's Spencer's generally view on how socities evoloved?
That survival of the fittest did take place. Socities evolve from "berbaric" to "civilized" and only the intelligent survive. It should remain this way unless "do-gooders" misguide people and get in the way by helping those who are less fit survive.
Which sociologist felt that they could change society by revolution?
The "class conflict" engine of human history was started by
Karl marx claimed that society was made up of two classes. The _______ and the _______.
Burgeoisie and proletariat
Karl marx believed that the ______________ would bring a new society that is "class-less" and free of explotation, where people work to their abilities and recieve goods and services according to needs.
Karl Marx believed in communism. (T or F)
Who's goal was it to get sociology as it's own discipline?
What was Emile Durkheim given in 1887?
Academic appointment (sociology) at the University of Bordeaux.
What was the important research that Emile Durkheim did?
Proving that underlying social factors feul the suicide rate.
What did Emile Durkheim identify as the key factor in determind suicide risk?
What was the principle behind Emile Durkheim's suicide research?
Human behavior cannot be understood on the terms of the individual alone, we must always examine the social forces that affect the individual as well.
What did Max Weber believe was the central force in social change was?
Whose sociological concept birthed capitalism?
How did Weber's concept embody the spirit of capitalism?
Stating that protestants would be ready to invest capital in order to make more money to be considered favorable in gods eyes.
Who was Marion Talbot?
An associate editor of the American Journal of Sociology
who was Grace Abbott?
First chief of the U.S child's Bureau
Who was Frances Perkins?
First woman to hold cabinent position = secretary of labor
Who was Jane Addams?
Nobel peace prize winner (sociologist)
Who published "Society in America"?
What was Farriet Martineau most famous for?
Translation Comte's ideas into English
Who embraced revolutionary marxism?
Who was a major sociologist of the 1940's?
Was Talcott Parsons for Social reform or social theory?
Was C. Wright Mills all for social theory or social reform?
Why did C. Wright Mills was social reform?
Claimed that sociologists missed the point that our freedom was threatened.
When did C. Wright Mills' ideas become popular?
in the 60's and 70's after his death by social activists.
Who created the term power Elite?
C. Wright Mills.
What are the two contradictory aims to the study of sociology?
Analysis of society vs. Social reform
Who were the three peopple that created stmbolic interactionism?
Charles horton Cooley, William I. Thomas and George Herbert Mead.
What was the major symbolic interactionism study based on?
Changes and roles in marriages over the years
Who were the three sociologists that viewed society as a living organism?
Aguste Comte, Herbert Spencer and Emile Durkheim
Robert Merton dismissed the arganic analogy used by Comte, Spence and Durkheim, but did maintained the essence of what?
According to functionalists, what keeps a groups balanced?
What are dysfunctions?
Consequences that harm a society and undermine the system's equilibrium
Action INTENDED to help some part of a system.
action UNINTENDED, has consequences that HELP asystem adjust
action UNITENDED, HURTS the system
What perspective stresses that industrialization and urbanization undermined traditionalf functions of the family?
When family loses function it becomes more...
Who is the founder of the conflict theory?
The key to human history is ...
Who stated that conflict was more likely to develop among people who are in close relationsips?
What gave women more alternatives as opposed to being exploited?
From conflict perspective, high divorce rates does not mean that marriage has weakened, but that women are makingheadway with their historical struggle with....
WHat are the three major theories presented in chapter 1?
Symbolic interactionism, functionalism and conflict theory
Why are marriages failing according to symbolic interactionists?
Because industrializationa and urbanization changed marital roles and led to a redefinition of love, marriage, children and divorce,
Why are marriages failing according to functional analysists?
A social change erodes the traditional functions of the family, family ties weaken and the divorce rate increases.
Why are marriages failing according to conflict theorists?
When men control economic life, the divorce rate is low
Who said that if the theory is not connected to research it will just be abstract and empty?
C. Wright Mills
List the steps of the research model in chronological order.
1.select a topic
2.define the problem
3.review the literature
4.formulate a hypothesis
5.Choose a research method
6.collect the data
7.analyze the data
8.share the results
What are the 7 types of research methods?
What is causation?
A change in one variable is caused by another variable.
What are the three conditions that are necessary for causation?