anatomy 3

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anatomy 3
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  1. Iliopsoas
    • Origin:
      • Psoas Major
        • Transverse processes of T12-L5 & the lateral aspects of the intervertebral discs
      • Psoas Minor
        • Side of T12+L1 & IV intervertebral disc between
      • Iliacus
        • Iliac fossa, base of sacrum
    • Insertion:
      • Psoas Major
        • Lesser trochanter of the femur
      • Psoas Minor
        • Pectineal line & iliopectineal eminence (lesser trochanter of the femur)
      • Iliacus
        • Lesser trochanter of the femur (lowermost surface)



    • Major Arteries:
      • Psoas Major
        • Lumbar branch of iliolumbar artery
      • Psoas Minor

      • Iliacus
        • Medial femoral circumflex artery
        • Iliac branch of iliolumbar artery


    • Neural Innervation:
      • Psoas Major
        • Lumbar plexus via anterior branches of L1-L3 nerves
      • Psoas Minor
        • Lumbar plexus
      • Iliacus
        • Femoral nerve (L2-L3)
        • Concentric Functions:
          • Iliocastalis
            • Lateral flexion of the (thoracic, lumbar & cervical) spine
            • Rotation of the (thoracic, lumbar & cervical) spine
          • Longissimus
            • Extension of the (thoracic, lumbar & cervical) spine
            • Lateral flexion of the (cervical) spine
            • Rotation of the (cervical) spine
          • Spinalis
            • Extension of the (thoracic, lumbar & cervical) spine



        • Eccentric Functions:
          • Decelerates flexion, rotation and lateral flexion of the spine

        • Isometric Function:
          • Dynamically stabilizes the spine during functional movements

        • Related Muscles:
          • Quadratus Lumborum
          • Splenius
          • Multifidus

        • Antagonist:
          • Rectus Abdominis

        • Exercises:
          • Lower Back Exercises
  2. Sartorius
    • Origin:
      • Anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS)
    • Insertion:
      • Medial condyle of the tibia


    • Major Arteries:
      • Femoral artery

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Femoral nerve
      • Intermediate cutaneous nerve of thigh (sometimes
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Assists in hip flexion, abduction & external rotation
        • Assists in knee flexion

      • Eccentric Functions:


      • Isometric Function:


      • Related Muscles
        • Iliopsoas
        • Tensor Fasciae Latae
        • Pectineus
        • Rectus Femoris
        • Hamstrings

      • Antagonists:
        • Gluteus Maximus
        • Quadriceps
      • Exercises:
  3. Rectus Femoris
    • Origin:
      • Anterior inferior iliac spine(straight head) & the ilium above acetabulum (reflected head)
    • Insertion:
      • Quadriceps tendon to patella (via ligamentum patellae into tubercle of tibia)


    • Major Arteries:
      • Lateral femoral circumflex artery

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Femoral nerve(L4-L5, S1)

    • Concentric Functions:
      • Knee extension
      • Hip flexion

    • Eccentric Functions:
      • Decelerates hip extension & knee flexion during functional movements
      • Decelerates knee flexion, adduction & internal rotation during heel strike of gait

    • Isometric Function:
      • Dynamically stabilizes the knee during functional movements

    • Related Muscles
      • Vastus Lateralis
      • Vastus Intermedius
      • Vastus Medialis

    • Antagonists:
      • Hamstrings

    • Exercises:
      • Leg Exercise Videos
  4. Tensor Fasciae Latae
    • Origin:
      • Anterior superior iliac spine
    • Insertion:
      • Iliotibial tract (anterior surface of lateral condyle of tibia)


    • Major Arteries:
      • Lateral circumflex femoral artery
      • Superior gluteal artery

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Superior gluteal nerve (L4-L5
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Hip abduction, flexion & internal rotation


      • Eccentric Functions:
        • Decelerates hip adduction & assists in decelerating hip extension & external rotation

      • Isometric Function:
        • Stabilizes in the frontal plane along with the gluteus medius & minimus

      • Related Muscles:
        • Gluteus Medius
        • Gluteus Minimus
        • liopsoas
        • Pectineus
        • Sartorius
        • Rectus Femoris

      • Antagonists:
        • Adductor Complex
        • Hamstrings
      • Exercises:
  5. Gluteus Medius
    • Origin:
      • External (gluteal) surface of the ilium (just below crest)
    • Insertion:
      • Posterior & lateral surface of the greater trochanter of the femur


    • Major Artery:
      • Superior gluteal artery

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Superior gluteal nerve (L4, L5, S1 nerve roots
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Abduction, transverse abduction, internal rotation & external rotation (during abduction) of the hip

      • Eccentric Functions:
        • Decelerates hip adduction & internal rotation

      • Isometric Function:
        • Stabilizes in the frontal plane along with the gluteus minimis & tensor fascia latae

      • Related Muscles
        • Gluteus Maximus
        • Gluteus Minimus

      • Antagonists:
        • Adductor Complex
      • Exercises:
  6. Gluteus Minimus
    Anatomy

    • Origin:
      • External (gluteal) surface of the ilium (below origin of gluteus medius)
    • Insertion:
      • Anterior surface of the greater trochanter of the femur


    • Major Artery
      • Superior gluteal artery

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Superior gluteal nerve (L4, L5, S1 nerve roots)

    • Concentric Functions:
      • Abduction, transverse abduction & internal rotation (during abduction) of the femur at the hip


    • Eccentric Functions:
      • Decelerates hip adduction

    • Isometric Function:
      • Stabilizes in the frontal plane along with the gluteus medius & tensor fascia latae

    • Related Muscles
      • Gluteus Maximus
      • Gluteus Medius

    • Antagonists:
      • Adductor Complex
      • Hamstrings
    • Exercises:
  7. Gluteus Maximus
    • Origin:
      • Posterior gluteal line
      • Posterior sacrum & coccyx
      • Fascia of the lumbar area
      • Sacrotuberous ligament
    • Insertion:
      • Gluteal tuberosity of the femur
      • Iliotibial tract


    • Major Arteries:
      • Superior gluteal artery
      • Inferior gluteal artery

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Inferior Gluteal Nerve (L5, S1, S2 nerve roots)

    • Concentric Functions:
      • Hip extension
      • Hip external rotation
      • Hip Adduction (lower portion)

    • Eccentric Functions:
      • Decelerates hip flexion, adduction & internal rotation during stance phase
      • Decelerates tibial internal rotation via the IlioTibial (IT) band

    • Isometric Function:
      • Assists in stabilizing the sacro iliac joint via the sacrotuberus ligament & the
      • lateral knee via the IT band

    • Related Muscles:
      • Gluteus Medius
      • Gluteus Minimus

    • Antagonists:
      • Iliopsoas
      • Adductor Complex
      • More depending on motion

    • Exercises:
      • Legs & Glutes Exercises
  8. Piriformis
    • Origin:
      • Anterior surface of the sacrum (S2-S4)
    • Insertion:
      • Superior aspect of the greater trochanter


    • Major Arteries:
      • Inferior gluteal artery
      • Lateral sacral artery
      • Superior gluteal artery

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Nerve to the piriformis (L5, S1, & S2 nerve roots
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Lateral (external) rotation of the thigh at the hip
        • Assist in hip extension during functional movements

      • Eccentric Functions:
        • Decelerates internal rotation of the hip

      • Isometric Function:
        • Helps stabilize the pelvis & femur during functional movements

      • Related Muscles

      • Antagonists:
        • Gluteus Medius
        • Gluteus Minimus
        • Adductor Complex
      • Exercises:
  9. Hamstrings Muscle Group
    • Major Arteries:
      • Inferior gluteal artery
      • Popliteal artery
      • Perforating arteries

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Sciatic nerve
      • Tibial nerve



    Physiology

    • Primary Concentric Functions:
      • Knee flexion
      • Hip extension


    • Eccentric Functions:
      • Deceleration of knee extension


    • Isometric Function:
      • Assists dynamically stabilize the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex during functional movement

    • Antagonist:
      • Quadriceps
      • Iliopsoas
    • Exercises:
  10. Biceps Femoris
    • Origin:
      • Long Head
        • Ischial tuberosity, part of the sacrotuberous ligament (tendon also common to semitendinosus)
      • Short Head
        • Lateral lip of the linea aspera below the gluteal tuberosity (between the adductor magnus & vastus lateralis)
    • Insertion:
      • Long Head
        • Fibular head (primarily) & lateral collateral ligament and lateral tibial condyle
      • Short Head
        • Styloid process of head of fibula. lateral collateral ligament and lateral tibial condyle



    • Major Arteries:
      • Inferior gluteal artery
      • Popliteal artery
      • Perforating arteries

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Long Head
        • Tibial portion of sciatic nerve


      • Short Head
        • Common peroneal portion of sciatic nerve (both L5 & S1
        • Concentric Functions:
          • Long Head
            • Knee flexion & tibial external rotation


          • Short Head
            • Accelerates knee flexion & tibial external rotation


        • Eccentric Functions:
          • Long Head
            • Decelerates knee extension, hip flexion & tibial internal rotation at mid-stance of the gait cycle
            • Assists in deceleration of anterior rotation of the pelvis
            • Assists in dynamic stabilization of the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex


          • Short Head
            • Decelerates knee extension & tibial internal rotation at mid-stance of the gait cycle


        • Isometric Function:
          • Long Head
            • Assists dynamically stabilize the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex during functional movement


          • Short Head
            • Assists dynamically stabilize the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex during functional movement patterns
        • Related Muscles
          • Semimembrinosis
          • Semitendinosis
          • Gluteus Maximus

        • Antagonist:
          • Quadriceps
          • Iliopsoas
        • Exercises:
  11. Semitendinosus
    • Origin:
      • Upper inner quadrant of posterior surface of ischial tuberosity & part of the sacrotuberous ligament
    • Insertion:
      • Proximal aspect of the medial tibial condyle (pes anserine)



    • Major Arteries:
      • Inferior gluteal artery
      • Perforating arteries

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Tibial portion of sciatic nerve (L5, S1)
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Knee flexion & internal rotation of the tibia
        • Hip extension

      • Eccentric Functions:
        • Decelerates knee extension, hip flexion & tibial external rotation
        • Assists to decelerate anterior pelvic rotation

      • Isometric Function:
        • Helps dynamically stabilize the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex during functional movements

      • Related Muscles
        • Semimembrinosis
        • Rectus Femoris
        • Gluteus Maximus

      • Antagonist:
        • Quadriceps
        • Iliopsoas
      • Exercises:
  12. Semimembranosus
    • Origin:
      • Upper outer quadrant of posterior surface of ischial tuberosity
    • Insertion:
      • Posterior aspect of the medial condyle of tibia below articular margin (fascia over popliteus & oblique popliteal ligament)



    • Major Arteries:
      • Profunda femoris
      • Gluteal artery

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Tibial portion of sciatic nerve (L5, S1-S2
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Knee flexion & internal rotation of the tibia
        • Hip extension

      • Eccentric Functions:
        • Decelerates knee extension, hip flexion & tibial external rotation
        • Assists to decelerate anterior pelvic rotation

      • Isometric Function:
        • Helps dynamically stabilize the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex during functional movement

      • Related Muscles
        • Biceps Femoris
        • Semitendinosis
        • Gluteus Maximus

      • Antagonist:
        • Quadriceps
        • Iliopsoas
      • Exercises:
  13. AAdducor Complex
    • Origin:
      • Ischiopubic ramus (anterior, adductor portion)
      • Lower outer quadrant of posterior surface of ischial tuberosity (posterior, hamstring or ischial fibers)
    • Insertion:
      • Lower gluteal line & linea aspera (anterior, adductor portion)
      • Adductor tubercle on the medial condyle ridge (posterior, hamstring or ischial fibers)


    • Major Artery:
      • Obturator artery

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Posterior division (L2-L4) of obturator nerve (anterior, adductor portion)
      • Tibial portion (L4-S3) of sciatic
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Hip adduction, transverse adduction & external rotation (during adduction)
        • Provides frontal plane stabilization during stance & assists in hip extension

      • Eccentric Functions:
        • Helps decelerates hip flexion at heel strike along with the other muscles of the adductor complex

      • Isometric Function:
        • Helps dynamically stabilize the lumbo-pelvic hip along with the other muscles of the adductor complex

      • Muscles Included
        • Adductor Magnus
        • Adductor Longus
        • Adductor Brevis
        • Gracilis
      • Antagonists:
        • Gluteus Maximus
      • Exercises
  14. Adductor Magnus
    • Origin:
      • Ischiopubic ramus (anterior, adductor portion)
      • Lower outer quadrant of posterior surface of ischial tuberosity (posterior, hamstring or ischial fibers)
    • Insertion:
      • Lower gluteal line & linea aspera (anterior, adductor portion)
      • Adductor tubercle on the medial condyle ridge (posterior, hamstring or ischial fibers)


    • Major Artery:
      • Obturator artery

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Posterior division (L2-L4) of obturator nerve (anterior, adductor portion)
      • Tibial portion (L4-S3) of sciatic
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Hip adduction, transverse adduction & external rotation (during adduction)
        • Provides frontal plane stabilization during stance & assists in hip extension

      • Eccentric Functions:
        • Helps decelerates hip flexion at heel strike along with the other muscles of the adductor complex

      • Isometric Function:
        • Helps dynamically stabilize the lumbo-pelvic hip along with the other muscles of the adductor complex

      • Related Muscles
        • Adductor Longus
        • Adductor Brevis
        • Gracilis
      • Antagonists:
        • Gluteus Maximus
      • Exercises:
  15. Adductor Brevis
    • Origin:
      • Inferior ramus & body of pubis
    • Insertion:
      • Upper third of linea aspera


    • Major Artery:
      • Obturator artery

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Anterior division of obturator nerve (L2-L3
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Hip adduction, transverse adduction, (initial) flexion & external rotation (during adduction)

      • Eccentric Functions:
        • Helps decelerates hip flexion at heel strike along with the other muscles of the adductor complex

      • Isometric Function:
        • Helps dynamically stabilize the lumbo-pelvic hip along with the other muscles of the adductor complex

      • Related Muscles
        • Adductor Longus
        • Adductor Magnus
        • Gracilis
      • Antagonists:
        • Gluteus Maximus
      • Exercises:
  16. Adductor Longus
    • Origin:
      • Body of pubis inferior & medial to pubic tubercle
    • Insertion:
      • Lower two thirds of medial linea aspera


    • Major Artery:
      • Obturator artery

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Anterior division of obturator nerve (L2-L3
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Hip adduction, transverse adduction, & (initial) flexion

      • Eccentric Functions:
        • Decelerates hip abduction, extension & external rotation
        • Helps decelerate hip flexion at heel strike along with the other muscles of the adductor complex

      • Isometric Function:
        • Helps dynamically stabilize the lumbo-pelvic hip along with the other muscles of the adductor complex

      • Related Muscles
        • Adductor Brevis
        • Adductor Magnus
        • Gracilis
      • Antagonists:
        • Gluteus Maximus
      • Exercises:
  17. Pectineus
    • Origin:
      • Upper border of the pubis (super pubic ramis)
    • Insertion:
      • Below the lesser trochanter of the femur (Pectineal line of the femur which leads from the lesser trochanter to the linea aspera)


    • Major Arteries:
      • Obturator artery

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Femoral nerve
      • Obturator nerve (sometimes)
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Hip adduction, transverse adduction & initial flexion

      • Eccentric Functions:
        • Decelerates hip flexion at heel strike during gait

      • Isometric Function:
        • Helps to dynamically stabilize the lumbo-pelvic hip complex along with the rest of the adductor complex

      • Related Muscles
        • Adductor Complex
        • Sartorius
        • Rectus Femoris
        • Tensor Fasciae Latae
        • Iliopsoas


      • Antagonists:
        • Gluteus Maximus
        • Hamstrings

      • Exercises:
  18. Gracilis
    • Origin:
      • Outer surface of the ischiopubic ramus
    • Insertion:
      • Medial surface of the superior tibia(upper medial shaft of tibia below sartorius)


    • Major Artery:
      • Medial circumflex femoral artery

    • Neural Innervation:
      • Anterior branch of obturator nerve
      • Concentric Functions:
        • Hip adduction & transverse adduction
        • Knee flexion

      • Eccentric Functions:
        • Decelerates hip flexion at heel strike

      • Isometric Function:
        • Stabilizes the medial tibio-femoral joint during functional movements

      • Related Muscles
        • Adductor Complex
        • Hamstrings

      • Antagonists:
        • Gluteus Maximus
        • Sartorius
      • Exercises:

  19. HOW TO’S - "DRY" MEASURES
    • Weight
    • ______pounds x .45 = _______ kilograms (kg)
    • Weight to the nearest ½ pound with shoes off.
    • Height in feet and inches =
    • _______ Now to calculate TOTAL INCHES
    • ______feet x 12 inches/foot + _________ inches = _________ TOTAL inches
    • Height to the nearest ¼ inch with shoes off.

  20. Body Mass Index (BMI)



    = ratio of body weight (BW) to height in adults
    • Determined by:
    • 1. take body weight in pounds x .45 =
    • weight in kilograms
    • 2. take height in inches/39.4 =
    • height in meters
    • 3. square (multiply it by itself) the height in meters (value determined in b) =
    • squared height in meters
    • 4. take
    • weight in kilograms ÷ squared height in meters (OR value determined in step a ÷ value determined in step c)
    • 5.
    • BMI = ________ kg/m2
    • Interpretation (circle 1)* *Obesity disease risk increases at 25.
    • < 18.5 = underweight
    • 18.5-24.9 = normal
    • 25-29.9 = overweight
    • 30-34.9 = Grade I obesity
    • 35-39.9 = Grade II obesity
    • > or equal to 40 = Grade III obesity

  21. Resting Heart Rate (RHR)
    • 1. use the radial pulse – Find the bone on the thumb side of the hand (radius). Using the index and third finger, place the pads of the fingers just above the skin seam, separating the hand from the forearm, and on the end of the radius
    • OR
    • 2. use the carotid pulse – Find the base of the mandible and the medial border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle located on the side of the neck. Where these two
    • structures meet, is the location for the carotid pulse. Using the index and third finger, gently place the pads of the fingers on the neck to find the pulse.
  22. 3. locate one pulse or the other and take the rate for one minute
  23. 4. best to take the pulse when awakening from a restful night’s sleep and BEFORE arising from bed
  24. 5. take the pulse for three consecutive mornings and average the numbers for the best indication of resting heart rate
  25. 6. if it is not possible to get three readings as suggested, then take the resting heart rate on 3 consecutive but separate occasions under the same time conditions for an indication
    • Resting Heart Rate _______Day 1 _______Day 2 _______Day 3 _______Average

  26. Blood Pressure (BP)
    • 1. Leaving the cuff's lower edge about an inch above the bend of the elbow, place the cuff over your bare arm, close the cuff around the arm, and then stick the Velcro together at the ends of the cuff.
    • 2. Place the earpieces of the stethoscope in your ears and place the stethoscope bell at the side of the cuff away from your heart and over the brachial artery, which is found in the inner area of your bent elbow.
    • 3. Tighten the screw at the side of the rubber bulb and squeeze the bulb so that air is pumped into the bulb.
    • 4. The cuff is inflated until the blood flow through your brachial artery stops. You will notice that you cannot hear anything through the stethoscope at this point. You will also notice that a pulse can no longer be felt in the wrist.
    • 5. Turn the screw again to loosen the valve in the bulb and to lessen the air pressure. When the pressure falls to the point that blood begins to flow through the artery again, a sound will be heard in the stethoscope. This is the systolic blood pressure (SBP), the first number in the blood pressure reading.
    • 6. Look at the column of mercury to see the number at that pressure point.
    • 7. When the cuff decompresses to the point that blood flows freely in the artery, the sound is no longer heard in the stethoscope. When the sound ceases is this reflects the diastolic blood pressure (DBP).
    • 8. Again, look at the column of mercury to see the number at that pressure point.
    • 9. Record the SBP and the DBP numbers immediately (don't depend on memory), and note the arm (right or left) used for taking the measurement is noted.
    • 10. If the first measurement is elevated, take another measurement in the same arm after 60 seconds. Then the other arm can be measured.
    • Blood Pressure __________mm/Hg ____________classification
    • Normal-High = 130-139/85-89; stage 1 = 140-159/90-99; stage 2/3 =
    • 160/100

  27. Girth or Circumference Measures
    • Standardized sites for circumference measures
    • 1. abdominal – maximum anterior protuberance of abdomen, usually at the umbilicus. Take measure at the end of normal expiration.
    • 2. thigh – apply the tape snugly around the thigh just below the gluteal fold
    • 3. calf – with client sitting so that legs are hanging freely, perform horizontal measure at the maximum girth of the calf.
    • 4. arm (biceps) – arms hanging freely, measure midway between the acromion process and the olecranon
    • 5. forearm – arms hanging loosely at sides and with forearms supinated, measure the maximal girth between the elbow and wrist
    • 6. waist measure – a horizontal line 1 inch above the umbilicus or at the smallest circumference in this area yet below the rib cage. Measure at the end of normal expiration.
    • Waist (Posterior View)
    • 7. hip or buttocks or gluteal – the largest horizontal plane around the buttocks and above the gluteal fold. Client should have the heels together. Lateral View
    • Girth
    • Girth Measurements
    • Waist_________ inches Hip _________inches Waist ÷ Hip = ________
    • Interpretation (
    • .86 for and .95 for is obesity disease risk) RISK NO RISK
    • (circle one)
    • Abdomen______inches Chest________inches
    • Biceps_________inches Thigh _______ inches Calf___________inches

  28. Body Fat Assessment

    with Skinfolds OR BodPod OR Underwater weighing OR Body Fat Analyzer

    • The “How-to’s” of Skinfold Measures (SK)
    • There are numerous protocols which usually involve 3, 4, or 7 of these sites.
    • Two commonly used protocols are:
    • Jackson-Pollock 4 site for = chest, suprailium, abdominal, midaxillary with three sites for = triceps, abdominal, suprailium AND
    • Durnin and Wormsley 4 site for and which includes biceps, triceps, suprailium, subscapular.
    • Regardless the protocol chosen, the following directions are common:a. all measures should be taken from the right side of the body
    • the caliper should be placed on the skinfold that has been created by the thumb and first finger, 1 cm away, perpendicular to, and ¼ in. in depth
    • the pinch should be maintained while the caliper is read
    • wait 1-2 seconds before taking the reading
    • take duplicate measures at each site after taking all previous measures
    • if 2 measures at a site are not within 1-2 mm, then take another at that site
    • rotate through the measures to allow time for skin to regain normalcy
    • Standardized Description of Skinfold Sites

    • (pictures are for Durnin and Wormsley protocol = 4 sites used for both
    • and .
    • 1. Abdominal – vertical fold; 2 cm to right of umbilicus

    2. Chest/Pectoral – diagonal; ½ the distance between anterior axillary line and nipple (men) or 1/3 this distance for women

    3. Thigh – vertical; on anterior midline of thigh, midway between proximal border of patella and inguinal crease at hip

    4. Medial calf – vertical; maximum circumference of calf and on midline of its medial border

    5. Midaxillary – vertical; midaxillary line at level of xiphoid

    • 6. Triceps – vertical fold; posterior midline of upper arm, ½ way between acromion and olecranon, with arm hanging freely at side
    • 7. Biceps – vertical fold; anterior arm over muscle belly, 1 cm above level of triceps

    • 8. Subscapular – diagonal; 1-2 cm below inferior angle of scapula

    • 9. Suprailiac – diagonal; taken in anterior axillary line immediately superior to iliac crest
    • Body Fat % ____________ {

    • Desirable is 10-22% for and 20-32% for (age-dependent)}
    • 1

    • st 2nd 3rd Average
    • Biceps fold _____ _____ _____ _____

    Triceps fold _____ _____ _____ _____

    Subscapular fold _____ _____ _____ _____

    Suprailiac fold _____ _____ _____ _____

    Total mm_____

    Body Fat %_____

    STEP 4. Prior to ending the session, give the client instructions for preparation of the second part of the fitness assessment and schedule a date to finish it. Allow the client to “practice” stepping on to the 12 inch bench to the 96 BPM cadence of the metronome PRIOR to ending the FIRST session.

    Instructions for three minute step test to be taken the second session.

    • Don’t eat a large meal or exercise prior to testing. Stay away from caffeinated products. If possible, don’t take any over-the-counter heart rate-altering medications. Be well rested






  29. Nutritional Calculations
    • Resting Metabolic Rate
    • (RMR)
    • 1. ________weight in lbs. x .45 = ________ weight in kilograms
    • 2. ________weight in kilograms x 24 kcal/day
    • = ________estimated RMR (calories

  30. Energy Expenditure/Day
    • 1.
    • Calories from RMR (above) x .5 (if highly active), .4 (if moderately active), (.3 if slightly active)
    • 2. Energy Expenditure/Day
    • from physical activity =
    • ________calories (from RMR) x ______(activity value)
    • 3. ________ (
    • Calories from RMR) + ________ (Calories from energy
    • expenditure/day
    • from physical activity)
    • = __________ Energy Expenditure/Day (calories you could consume
    • without gaining weight assuming that you had this much
    • activity in a day

  31. Energy Expenditure by Selected Activity for Particular Weight (see appendix for METs)
    • 1. ________weight in kg x ________ {activity’s MET value, see appendix for MET value}
    • =__________
    • 2. _________(value from above) x _________minutes of activity/60 minutes
    • = __________calories of energy expenditure by selected activity for your
    • weight (kcal/minute)
    • Target Body Weight =
    • Fat Free Mass (FFM) / 1 – desired BF/100

  32. Weight Loss Determination (1 pound/week
    • Weight loss of 1 pound/week requires a negative energy balance of
    • 3500 kcal/week or 500 kcal/day either as:
    • 500 less calories from food eaten or
    • 500 calories of increased physical activity or
    • 250 calories from food eaten and 250 calories of increased physical activity

  33. Weight Maintenance
    • Calories to consume each day according to macronutrients
    • Based on 60% of calories from carbohydrate, 15% from protein,
    • and 25% from fat.
    • ________calories from energy expenditure/day x .60 = ________ carb calories
    • ________calories from energy expenditure/day x .15 = ________ protein calories
    • ________calories from energy expenditure/day x .25 = ________ fat calories
    • Recommended Daily Protein Intake (in grams of protein/day)
    • ________ kg weight x ________grams/day/kg protein = _________ grams of
    • protein per day
    • {Multiply body weight in kilograms x .8 (sedentary), 1(active)
    • or 1.5
    • (very active) grams/day/kilogram dependent upon daily physical activity level.

  34. Exercise Prescription for Cardiovascular Activity
    • Maximum Heart Rate
    • - 220 – age = 220 - ________ = _________ Beats/minute
    • Heart Rate Reserve
    • (HRR) = MaxHR – Resting Heart Rate (RHR)
    • = (220 – age) - ________(RHR) = _________ BPM

  35. Target or Training Heart Rate



    (THR)
    • Using Maximum Heart Rate
    • 1. MaxHR = 220 – age = _______
    • 2. Multiply MaxHR by the desired % of MaxHR, for example,
    • 3. ________ BPM x .64 = ________ BPM >>>>>> the mimimum
    • target
    • heart rate
    • ________ BPM x .94 = ________ BPM >>>>> the maximum
    • target
    • heart rate

  36. Using the Heart Rate Reserve or Karvonen Method
    • 1. HRR = MaxHR – Resting Heart Rate = _________
    • 2. Multiply the HRR by the % of HRR you would like to train at, for
    • example, _________(HRR) x .40 (40% of HRR) = ___________
    • 3. Add your Resting Heart Rate back into the calculation, for example,
    • _________ (from #2) + _________(RHR) = ________ BPM or
    • = ____________>>>>>>>>>the
    • minimum target heart rate
    • 4. __________HRR x .85 (85% of HRR) = _________ + ________RHR
    • = __________>>>>>>>>>>the
    • maximum target heart rate

  37. The three

    major functions of the nervous system
    • are
    • sensory, integrative and motor functioning.
    • The ultimate purpose of this neural network
    • is to gather information about our inner and
    • external surroundings (sensory function),

    process and interpret the information

    (integrative function), and then respond to

    these stimuli (motor function).


  38. The neuron
    • is the functional
    • unit of the nervous system
    • and the merging of these cells,
    • called neurons, creates the nerves of the body.
    • The structure of neurons allows for very quick
    • communication to and from
    • the cell as well as continuous
    • conduction of signals across
    • the neuron. A neuron’s main
    • component is a cell body, or
    • soma, which contains the
    • organelles important to the
    • proper functioning of this cel

  39. A long branch called the axon
    • projects out of the soma and
    • feeds information through
    • nerve impulses to muscles, organs and other
    • neurons.

  40. Shorter branches called dendrites
    • project from the soma, bringing information
    • from other neurons of the nervous system

  41. All the communication occurs across

    junctions referred to as synapses
    • which occur
    • either between neurons or between a neuron
    • and another cell type. A
    • synapse is just a tiny empty
    • space between two axons
    • or dendrites from different
    • cells.

  42. Within these synapses,
    neurotransmitters,
    • the
    • major chemical messengers
    • of the nervous system, are released from the
    • neurons before the synapse and bind to the
    • receiving cells located after
    • the synapse. This stimulates a
    • signal that is called an action
    • potential, which travels to the
    • receiving cell, called a receptor,
    • and then on to the cells that
    • act on the signal in the desired
    • location.

  43. the central nervous




    system (CNS)

    • The brain and the spinal cord,
    • a long tubular continuation of the brain,
    • are collectively known as the CNS. This is
    • the source of conscious
    • and unconscious thoughts,
    • moods and emotions.

  44. the peripheral nervous
    system (PNS)
    • The
    • PNS is comprised of all the nerves in the body,
    • including the cranial and spinal nerves

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