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What is pharmacology?
Study of drugs
What is the major areas of pharmacology?
The study of pharmacodynamics
What is Pharmacodinamics?
The action of drugs on living tissue.
What is Pharmacokinetics?
The processes of drugs. ADME
What does ADME in Pharmacokinetics stand for?
- A: Absorption
- D: Distribution
- M: Metabolism
- E: Excretion
What is Pharmacotherapeutics?
The use of drugs in treating disease
What is Pharmacy?
The Science of preparing and dispensing medications
What is Posology?
The amount of drugs that is required to produce therapeutic effects.
What is Toxicology?
The harmful effects of dugs on living tissue.
What is a drug?
It is a substance or compound when given to a living organism produces a change in fungtion.
What are the sources of drugs?
- - Animals
- - Plants
- - Microorganisms
- - Chemical compounds
What is the intended effect of the drug called?
What does "Drug Indication" mean?
The therapeutic use of any drug - What it is used for
What does "Drug Contraindication" mean?
- Refered to the situation or circumstance when a particular drug should not be used.
- ex) High BP PT cannot take cough medicen b/c it raise BP.
What is "Side effects"?
- They are considered more of nusiance(不快） than they are harmful.
- ex) headache, nausea = not allergy
What is "Adverse effect"?
- there effects may be harmful or when on extended treatment may cause damage to organs.
- ex) if you exceed the intake of Tyenol, Liver will be hurt.
What is "Toxic effect"?
Drug poisoning and the result is extremely harmful and maybe life threatning.
What is "Drug interactions"?
The effects that occur when the action of one drug are affected by another drug.
What are the 5 types of Drug Interactions?
- - Inconpatibility
- - Additive effects
- - Summation
- - Synergism
- - Antagonism
What is Incompatibility?
- Physical changes of drugs that occur before administration with different drugs which were mixed in the same container or syringe.
- ex) Lidocane mixed with Bicarbonate = incompatible
What is Additive effect?
Combined effect of 2 drugs each producing the same biological response by the same MOA(Mechanism of Action)
What is Summation?
The combined effects of 2 drugs each producing the same biological response with a different MOA(mechanism of action)
What is Synergism?
When the combined effect of 2 drugs is greater than the sum of their individual effects.
ex) the 2 drugs doesn't work as great by itself, but when we combine them, the effect is great.
What is Antagonism?
- When the combined effect of 2 drugs is less than the sum of their indivisual effects.
- - somehow block the drug from acting
What is the site of action?
- The location in the body where the drug exerts its therapeutic effects.
- - Site of action is not always known
What is MOA?
- Mechanism of Action
- = explains how a drug produces its effects
- = knowlege of the MOA of drugs exert the effects that they do.
What is "Receptor Site"?
The specific location (site) where the drug attaches itself to the cell membrane.
What is "Agonist"?
They are drugs that bind to specific receptors and produce a drug action.
What is "Antagonists"?
Drugs that bind to specific receptors but DO NOT produce any drug action. Their role is to block other drugs or substances from producing an effect.
What is "Competitive antagonism"?
When both agents are given and compete with the same receptor site.
What is Dose?
The exact amount of drug that is given to produce a specific effect.
What is Response?
The effect of this dose is called the response. (Reaction)
What is Drug Response?
- it is proportional to the dose.
- As the dose increases, so does the magnitude of the response.
- Max response 100% anything further produces a cieling effect.
What is Ceiling Effect?
- when a further increase in dose will not produce a greater effect.
- usually anything above will cause undesirable toxic drug effects.
Dose response curves are often used to compare potency of similar drugs.
What is ED50?
- ED50 stands for Effective Dose at 50%
- Is the dose that will produce an effect that is half of the maximal response.
What is Time Response?
The relationship of the dose response and the time
What is the Duration of action?
Is the time that the drug continues to produce its effect.
What are the 2 FDA guidelines, which must fulfill?
- Safety and efficacy
What is LD50?
the dose that will kill 50% of the animals tested and is used to predict safety of the drug.
What is TI?
- TI stands for Therapeutic Index
- is represented as the ratio of LD50 to the ED50 of a drug.
- TI is only used in animal studies to establish dosage levels for other testing.
What is the TI for the following ?
- TI = LD50 / ED50
- TI = 2000mg / 50mg = 40
- --> Need 40 times more of ED50 to produce LD50
What is TI?
LD50 = 1000mg, ED50 = 100mg
TI = LD50 / ED50 = 1000mg / 100mg = 10
If TI is 10, what does TI indicate?
If TI(Therapeutic Index) is 10, it indicates 10 times as much drug is needed to produce a lethal effect in 50% of the animals as is needed to produce the Therapeutic Effect in 50% of the animals.
How ED50 is ued?
ED 50 is used to compare the potency （効能）of drugs that produce the same response.
What is the goal of drug therapy?
to achieve therapeutic effects in all individuals without producing any harmful effects.
What does DEA mean?
Drug Enforcement Agency
What is Controlled Substances Act of 1970?
it is designed to regulate the sidpensing of certain drugs that have potential for abuse.
How many schedule for the Controlled Substances?
What is Schedule I?
- Drugs with high abuse potential and Not accepted medical use
- ex) Cocaine
What is Schedule II?
- Drugs with high abuse potential and accepted medical use.
- ex) Morphine, pure cordeine
What is Schedule III?
- Drugs with moderate abuse potential and accepted medical use.
- ex) Tyenol 3, Vicaden
What is Schedule IV?
- Drugs with low abuse potential and accepted medical use.
- ex) advan, valium
What is Schedule V?
- Drugs with limited abuse potential and accepted medical use.
- ex) cough syrup w/ cordeine
What determines which form of the drug will be the most effective?
Both Physical and Chemical properties of drug
What are the 3 major types of preparations?
- Aqueous preparations
- Alcoholic preparations
- Solid and Semi Solid
What is Aqueous preparations?
syrups and suspensions 懸濁液=固体粒子が液体中に分散した分散系
What are Alcoholic preparations?
- Elixeis エリキシル剤、甘味と香りを付けたアルコール水溶液で、薬剤を飲みやすくするために用いられる。
- Spirits 蒸留酒
- Tinctures 色味を帯びさせる
What is the most common type of preparation?
Solid and Semi-solid
What of powder preparations?
Ground into fine particles
What is Tablets preparations?
Powders that have been compressed
Where do Troches and Lozenges dissolve?
What is Capsule?
Gelatine Shell encases the drug powder.
What are Delayed release products?
Tablets or capsules with special coating so it will dissolve at different times.
What is Enteric Coated?
Special coating because either drug irritates the stomach or stomach destroys drug.
What is SODAS?
- Spherical Oral Drug Absorption System
- This allows for less frequent dosing.
What is GITS?
- Gastrointestinal Therapeutic System
- This is a 2 compartment tablet and will deliver drug at a constant rate over extended periods of time.
What is Suppositories
- drugs inserted into body cavities
- drug is absorbed through rectum
What are the benefits of Ointments/ Creams/ Gels?
- Ointment: Hydrophobic = increases moisture. Stays longer for localized area.
- Cream: Hydorophillic, water soluble, covering larger surface.
- Gel: Cooling effect