fuels and heats of reaction

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Author:
murphyainec
ID:
106676
Filename:
fuels and heats of reaction
Updated:
2011-10-18 16:55:38
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chemistry
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chapter 21
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  1. define organic chemistry
    study of the compounds of carbon
  2. define hydrocarbon
    compound that contains only hydrogen and carbon
  3. what is a saturated compound
    only single bonds i.e. alkane
  4. name the first ten alkanes
    • 1. methane
    • 2. ethane
    • 3. propane
    • 4. butane
    • 5. pentane
    • 6. hexane
    • 7. heptane
    • 8. octane
    • 9. nonane
    • 10. decane
  5. what is the structural formula?
    shows how the atoms of a compound are arranged relative to one another
  6. what is the full structural formula?
    shows all the atoms and all the bonds in a compound
  7. define isomers
    compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formula
  8. what is a homologous series
    • >series of compounds of uniform chemical type
    • >showing gradations in physical properties
    • > having a general formula for its members
    • >each member having a similiar method of preparation
    • >each member differing from the previous member by a (CH2) unit
  9. define structural isomers
    compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulas
  10. define aliphatic compounds
    organic compound that consists of open chains of carbon atoms and closed chain compounds that resemble them in chemical properties
  11. define aromatic compounds
    compounds that contain a benzene ring structure in their molecules
  12. define octane number
    measure of the tendency of the fuel to resist knocking
  13. define catalytic cracking
    breaking down of long-chain hydrocarbon molecules into short-chain molecules for which there is greater demand
  14. define heat of reaction
    heat change when the number of moles of reactants indicated in the balanced equation for the reaction react completely
  15. define heat of combustion
    substance is the heat change when one mole of the substance is completely burned in excess oxygen
  16. define bond energy
    energy required to break one mole of covalent bonds and to separate the neutral atoms and completely from each other
  17. define heat of neutralisation
    heat change when one mole of H+ ions from an acid reacts with one mole of OH- ions from a base
  18. define heat of formation of a compound
    heat change that takes place when one mole of a compound in its standard state is formed from its elements in their standard states
  19. define hess's law
    if a chemical reaction takes place in a number of stages, the sum of the heat changes in the separate stages is equal to the heat change if the reaction is carried out in one stage
  20. what is the law of conservation
    energy cannot be created or destroyed but can only be converted from one form of energy into another

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