pollution of marine

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Author:
alyspins
ID:
106688
Filename:
pollution of marine
Updated:
2011-10-05 17:03:15
Tags:
pollution marine
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Description:
pollution of marine
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  1. Pollution from organic sources
    • Correct decomposition overview
    • Dead stuff and detritus
    • decomposed by bacteria and fungi
    • Microbial loop in plankton
    • Food for other organisms
    • OR decomposed-> encrusted detritus becomes food for other organisms
  2. What goes wrong with natural decomposition
    • Nature, can get stagnant anoxic areas in stratified places
    • In anoxic areas, get anaerobic bacteria, sulphur reducers in H2SO4
    • ACIDIC
    • Few organisms larger than bacteria: nematodes, gnathostomulids
    • This is good for marine archeologists
    • Some are caused by ship basins, others are natural
    • Some long-lasting, natural anaerobic areas: SANTA BARBARA BASIN
    • Estimated that it has been stagnant for 1000+years
    • Black sea, Fjords of Norway
    • Nice up at surface, but deep down=YUCK
    • Humans may cause it due to dredging etc
  3. System can be overwhelmed with too much input
    • DEAD ZONE off Louisiana
    • Much input from Mississippi River
    • Detritus, nutrients
    • Fertilizers from farms etc
    • Spring phytoplankton bloom, dead phyto. Sinks, stratificaion occurs
    • No or poor mixing-everything just rots
    • Then SEASONAL OVERTURN
    • Due to storm that brings everything up
    • Black stuff comes up, causes fish to jump out-"JUBILLE"
  4. Too much sewage or effluent
    • Primary treatment: screen for chunks
    • Secondary: sewage settle and is treated with bleach/chlorine to decontaminate
    • Sludge is dried and removed
    • Chlorine must eventually be removed form sewage outfall
    • Outfall-where water goes into ocean
    • Interferes with nervous system of vertebrates if chlorine present
    • Tertiary: fit to drink
  5. Other organic
    • Petroleum products: various fractions
    • More refine=more toxic
    • Some floats: evaporates
    • Can be toxic to birdsm, plnakton etc
    • Fumes cause disorientation
    • Some sinks: coat sea floor, closes burrows, coats marine life, creates anoxic layer
    • Other effects:
    • disrupts respirations
    • Prevents self cleaning by birds, seals etc
    • Self cleaning=>fluffy=> warm
    • Can't clean=> may freeze
    • Block body effects
    • Black tar covers barnacle etc
    • Cooks them in own shell
    • Slimy organisms slough off tar
    • On sandy beach with debris such as Sargassum
    • Forms foamy mix, "Chocolate mousse"
    • Causes troubles in animals CNS
    • Effects will depend on
    • What temperature and where
    • Salt marshes-majorly affected-no get out
    • Inorganic pollutants
    • Pesticides, bioaccumulation; PCBs heavy metals
  6. Pesticides
    • Can act on nervous system or prevent reproduction
    • Problem: non targeted species may die
  7. Bioaccumulation: DDT
    • First of all, some humans majorly allergic
    • Diatom: 1 dose DDT
    • Copepod: 10 doses
    • Fish 100 doses
    • Large fish 1000 doses
    • Bald eagle 10000
    • Not eating DDT, getting it from its food
    • DDT has half life of 15 years
  8. PCB's
    Accumulate in fat, disrupt enzymatic pathways
  9. Heavy metals
    • Disrupt enzymatic pathways, interurpt nervous transmission
    • Some mollusks (oysters for ex) not affected
    • Ie Lead/ mercury LAVAKA BAY in there and the organisms can live and you can't tell its saturated until you die after eating it
    • Solutions?
    • Contain it, re-use it, prohibit it
    • Some pollutants persist for long times
    • If buried, last even longer
  10. Is something a pollutant?
    • Bio-assays: expose test animal to various concentrations of new compound
    • Sea urchin embryo is often used b/c similar to vertebrae then
    • If causes problem for it, STOP
    • If pass urchin, move on to shrimp, mice, monkeys etc

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