Bio process of science.txt

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Bio process of science.txt
2011-10-18 14:41:35
biology hypothesis theory

biology ch 1
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  1. What is an hypothesis?
    A testable and falsifiable explanation for a scientific explanation.
  2. Anecdotal evidence
    An informal observation that has not been systematically tested.
  3. Experiment
    A carefully designed test, the results of which will either support or rule out a hypothesis
  4. Experimental group
    The group in an experiment that experiences the experimental intervention or manipulation
  5. Control group
    The group in an experiment that experiences no experimental intervention or manipulation.
  6. Placebo
    A fake treatment given to control groups to mimic the experience of the experimental group.
  7. Placebo effect
    The effect observed when members of a control group display a measurable response to a placebo because they think they are receiving a real treatment
  8. Independent variable
    The variable or factor being deliberately changed in the experimental group.
  9. Dependent variable
    The measured result of an experiment, analyzed in both the experimental and the control groups.
  10. Sample size
    The number of experimental subjects or the number of times the experiment is repeated
  11. Scientific theory
    Hypothesis that is supported by years of rigorous testing and thousands of experiments
  12. Randomized clinical trial
    A controlled medical experiment in which subjects are randomly chosen to receive either an experimental treatment or a standard treatment (placebo)
  13. science
    the process of using observations and experiments to draw evidence-based conclusions
  14. peer review
    a process in which independent scientific experts ensure each study has been designed and interpreted appropriately
  15. about hypotheses
    • hypotheses can never be proved true once and for all
    • if a hypothesis is shown to be false, it can be rejected and removed from the list of possible answers to the original question
    • if the data support the hypothesis, it will be accepted until further testing and data show otherwise
  16. process of science
    • initial observations generate questions
    • study peer-reviewed scientific literature
    • make scientific hypotheses that are testable and falsifiable
    • carry out controlled experiments
    • analyze experimental data
    • make conclusions supported by data
    • if results do not support hypothesis - test alternative hypothesis
    • if results support hypothesis - rigorously test hypothesis with more experiments
    • publish results in peer-reviewed publications