Bio what is life.txt

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Bio what is life.txt
2011-10-18 14:30:39
biology molecule functional traits

biology ch 2
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  1. Name the molecules of life.
    Lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and proteins
  2. What are the functional traits of life
    Growth, reproduction, homeostasis, sense and respond to stimuli, obtain and use energy
  3. Homeostasis
    Maintain a stable internal environment even when external environment changes
  4. Metabolism
    All the chemical reactions taking place in the cells of a living organism that allow it to obtain and use energy
  5. Element
    Chemically pure substance that can't be chemically broken down. Each is made up of and defined by a single type of atom
  6. Matter
    Anything that takes up space and has mass
  7. Atom
    The smallest unit of an element that can't be chemically broken down into smaller units
  8. Proton
    A positively charged subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom
  9. Electron
    A negatively charged subatomic particle with negligible mass
  10. Neutron
    An electrically uncharged subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom
  11. Nucleus
    The dense core of an atom
  12. covalent bond
    strong chemical bond resulting from the sharing of a pair of electrons between 2 atoms
  13. molecule
    atoms linked by covalent bonds
  14. organic molecule
    molecule with a carbon-based backbone and at least one C-H bond
  15. inorganic molecule
    molecule that lacks a carbon-based backbone and C-H bonds
  16. carbohydrate
    organic molecule made up of one or more sugars. carb with 1 sugar is a monosaccharide and carb with multiple linked sugars is called a polysaccharide
  17. protein
    organic molecule made up of linked amino acid subunits
  18. lipids
    organic molecules that generally repel water
  19. nucleic acids
    organic molecules made up of linked nucleotide subunits. DNA and RNA are examples
  20. macromolecules
    large organic molecules that make up living organisms; eg. carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids
  21. monomer
    one chemical subunit of a polymer
  22. polymer
    molecule made up of individual subunits, called monomers, linked together in a chain
  23. monosaccharide
    the monomer of a carbohydrate
  24. amino acid
    the monomer of a protein
  25. nucleotide
    the monomer of a nucleic acid
  26. function of carbohydrate
    • some act as energy-storing molecules in many organisms.
    • others provide structural support for cells
  27. structure of monosaccharide
    carbon backbone is most often arranged in a ring
  28. complex carbohydrate
    monosaccharides bonded together in straight or branching chain
  29. structure of amino acid
    • 20 different amino acids
    • amino group (has a nitrogen) carboxyl group (C double bond OH) and an R group (H-C-?) in the middle
  30. protein structure
    • chain of amino acids
    • proteins do not function properly until they fold up into their unique three-dimensional shape
  31. 4 kinds of lipids
    • fatty acids
    • sterols (cholesterol)
    • triglycerides
    • phospholipids
  32. fatty acids and structure of
    long chain of carbon atoms bonded to one another and to hydrogen atoms
  33. sterols and their structure
    4 connected carbon rings
  34. triglycerides
    3 fatty acid chains attached to a glycerol molecule
  35. sterol
    • fatty acids
    • saturated
    • unsaturated
  36. amino acid
  37. monosaccharide (glucose)
  38. triglyceride
  39. phospholipid
    • 2 fatty acid chains and a phosphate group attached to a glycerol molecule
    • important component of cell membranes
  40. phospholipid
  41. nucleic acids and their structure
    • made up of nucleotides
    • the nucleotides form either DNA or RNA
  42. nucleotide structure
    sugar, phosphate group and base
  43. what are the 4 bases that are associated with nucleotides
    • adenine
    • guanine
    • cytosine
    • thyamine (DNA) or uracel (RNA)
  44. RNA
  45. DNA
  46. pH
    • the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution
    • acid - more H+
    • base - less H+
  47. carbon is a key component of life
    4 things about carbon
    • 4th most common element in the universe
    • 2nd most common element in your body
    • ability to form multiple covalent bonds
    • forms both organic and inorganic molecules
  48. hydrogen bond
    a weak electrical attraction between a partially positive hydrogen atam and another atom with a partial negative charge
  49. draw a representation of hydrogen bonding between water molecules
  50. properties of water
    • water molecules can absorb a lot of energy before they get hot and vaporize because of their hydrogen bonds
    • ice floats because water is less dense as a solid than as a liquid
  51. why is pH important?
    • strong acids and bases are highly reactive with other substances, which makes them destructive to the molecules in a cell
    • many biochemical reactions take place only at a certain pH
    • living things are extremely sensitive to changes in pH, and most function best when their pH stays within a specific range