honors biology terms

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honors biology terms
2011-10-05 20:45:27
bio terms

bio terms
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  1. Carbohydrate
    refers to a class of molecules ranging from small sugar molecules to large polysaccharides
  2. Monosaccharide
    a carbohydrate monomer
  3. Disaccharide
    two monosaccharides joined together by a dehydration reaction
  4. Polysaccharide
    polymers of monosaccharides linked together by dehydration reaction
  5. Starch
    a storage polysaccharide in plants made of only glucose monomers (has one strand)
  6. Glycogen
    a storage polysaccharide in animals made of only glucose monomers (branched structure)
  7. Cellulose
    the most abudant organic compound on earth. forms tough cableike fibrils in the tough walls in plant cells
  8. Chitin
    used by insects and crustaceans to build their exoskeletons
  9. Lipids
    diverse compounds that are grouped together because they share one trait they mix poorly with water (ex oil and water)
  10. Hydrophobic
    water fearing
  11. Fat
    large lipid made from two kinds of smaller molecules: glycerol and fatty acid
  12. Unsaturated
    having less that the maximum number of hydrogens
  13. Saturated
    having the maximum number of hydrogens
  14. Phospholipids
    major component of cell membranes
  15. Steroids
    lipids whose carbon skeleton contains four fused rings
  16. Cholesterol
    common component in animal cell membranes
  17. Anabolic steroids
    synthetic varients of the male hormone testosterone
  18. Protein
    polymer constructed from amino acid monomers
  19. Amino acids
    acid that has an amino group and a carboxyl group
  20. Peptide bond
    covalent linkage between two amino acids in a polypeptids
  21. Polypeptide
    chain of amino acids
  22. Denaturation
    process that alters protiens
  23. Primary structure
    unique structure fo amino acids
  24. Secondary structure
    second level of protien structure. parts of a polypeptide
  25. Alpha helix
    Coiling of peptide chains
  26. Pleated sheet
    folding of peptide chains
  27. tertiary structure
    3 dimensional shape of a polypeptide
  28. Quaternary structure
    two or more polypeptides chains
  29. Organic compounds
    carbon based molecules
  30. Hydrocarbons
    combounds composed of only carbon and hydrogen
  31. Carbon skeleton
    chain of carbon atoms in an organic molecule
  32. Isomers
    compounds with the same formula but different structures
  33. Functional group
    assemblage of atoms commonly attached to the carbon skeleton of organic molecules and usually involved in chemical reactions
  34. Hydophilic
    water loving
  35. Hydroxyl group
    a hydrogen atom bonded to an oxygen atom which is in turn bonded to a carbon skeleton
  36. Carbonyl group
    a carbon atom atom linked by a double bond to an oxygen atom
  37. Carboxyl group
    carbon double bonded to an oxygen and also double bonded to a hydroxyl group
  38. Amino group
    composed of a nitrogen bonded to two hydrogen atoms and the carbon skeleton
  39. Phospate group
    consits of a phosphorus atom bonded to four oxygen atoms
  40. Methyl group
    consists of a carbon bonded to three hydrogens
  41. Macromolecules
    large biological molecules
  42. Polymers
    large molecules made of small molecules joined together
  43. Dehydration reaction
    a chemicla process in which tho moleciles become covalently bonded to each other withe the removal of a water molecule (dehydration reaction condensation dehydration sequence)
  44. Hydrolysis
    reverse dehydration. bonds break when water is added to them
  45. Enzymes
    specalized macromolecules the speed up chemical reactions in cells