Psychology6-9

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socaitwaslike
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106742
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Psychology6-9
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2011-10-05 19:58:32
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psych
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  1. threshold
    refers to a point above which a stimulus is percieved and below which it is not percieved.
  2. absolute threshold
    is the intensity level of a stimulus such that a person will have a 50% chance of detecting it.
  3. subliminal stimulus
    has an intensity that gives a person less than a 50% chance of detecting stimulus
  4. Just noticiable difference
    refers to the smallest increase or decrease in the intensity of a stimulus that a person is able to detect
  5. Weber's law
    states that the increase in intensity of a stimulus needed to produce a just noticeable difference grows in proportion to the intensity of the initial stimulus
  6. sensation
    is out first awareness of some outside stimulus
  7. perception
    is the experience we have after out brain assembkes and combines thousands of meaningless sensations into a meaningful pattern
  8. structuralists
    believed that you add together hundreds of basic elements to form complex perceptions
  9. figure-ground rule
    we tend to automatically distinguish between a figure and a ground
  10. closure rule
    we tend to fill any missing parts of a figure and see the figure complete
  11. proximity rule
    we group together objects that are physically close together
  12. similarity rule
    we group together elements that appear similar
  13. simplicity rule
    states that stimuli are organized in the simplest way possible
  14. continuity rule
    we tend to favor smooth paths when interpreting a series of points or lines
  15. extrasensory perception
    is a group of psychic experiences that involve percieving or sending info outside normal sensory processes
  16. telepathy
    is the ability to transfer one's thoughts to another or to read the thoughts of others
  17. percognition
    is the ability to foretell events
  18. clairvoyance
    ability to percieve events or objects that are out of sight
  19. consciousness
  20. refers to different levels of awareness
  21. controlled processes
    are activities that require full awareness to reach some goal
  22. automatic processes
    are activities that require little awareness and do not interfere with ongoing activities
  23. daydreaming
    activity that requires low level of awareness, often occurs during automatic processes
  24. altered state of consciousness
    result from using any number of procedures to produce an awareness that differs from normal consciousness
  25. sleep
    consists of five different stages that involve different levels of awareness
  26. dreaming
    is a unique state of sonsciousness in which we are asleep but experience a variety of astonishing visual images
  27. implicit or nondeclaritive memory
    means learning without awareness, such as acquiring habits.
  28. unconsciousness
    total lack of sensory awareness and complete loss of responsiveness
  29. biological clocks
    interal timing devices that are genetically set to regulate responses for different periods of time
  30. interval timing clock
    helps people and animals time their movements
  31. food entrainable circadian clock
    regulates eating patterns
  32. jet lag
    travelers' biological circadian clocks are out of step
  33. light therapy
    the use of bright light to reset circadian clocks to combat with insomnia
  34. melatonin
    horomone
  35. alpha stage
    marked by feelings of being relaced and drowsy
  36. non REM sleep
    where you spend approximately 80% of your sleep time.
  37. stage 1 sleep
    is a transition from wakefulness to sleep.
  38. stage 2 sleep
    marks the beginning of sleep
  39. stage 3 sleep
  40. after 30-45 minutes
  41. stage 4 sleep
    deepest stage of sleep because it is the most difficukt from which to be awakened
  42. REM sleep
    rapid eye movement, your body is physiologically very aroused but muscles are paralyzed
  43. hypnosis
    suggests that a person will experience changes in sensations
  44. hypnosis induction
    to inducing hypnosis by first asking a person to stare at an object
  45. altered state theory of hypnosis
    holds that hypnosis puts a person in an altered state of consciousness
  46. psychoactive drugs
    chemicals that affect our nervous system , modify stuff.
  47. addiction
    desire to obtain and use drug
  48. tolerance
    means that you become used to the doses of that drug, so person increases doses
  49. dependancy
    needs to take the drug to prevent the occurence of painful withdrawal systems
  50. withdrawal symptoms
    stop using the drug
  51. stimulunts
    increase activity of the central nervous system and result in alertness
  52. methamphetamine
    can be smoked, snorted, and produces an almost intaneous high.
  53. cocaine
    produces increased heart rate
  54. caffeine
    produces arousal, improved reaction times
  55. nicotine
    triggers the brains reward and pleasure centers to produce good feelings
  56. opiates
    pleasurable state between awake and sleep. hot and cold flashes
  57. hallucinogens
    produce strange and unusual perceptual sensory experiences which the person sees or hears but knows that they are not occuring reality
  58. LSD
    strange experiences, visual hallucinations, perceptual distortions. alter tstate of mind
  59. psilocybin
    produces pleasant and relaxed feelings, medium doses produce distortions in time, induce psychotic states
  60. mescaline
    active ingrediant in peyote cactus, creates hallucinations. aches and vomiting
  61. designer drugs
    manufactured of synthetic drugs that are designed to resemble already existing illegal psychoactive drugs.
  62. MDMA or ecstasy
    resembles both mescaline and amphetamine. heightens sensations, gives a euphoric rush, raises body temperatures
  63. aldohol
    depressant, depresses activity of the central nervous system. most people think it's a stimulant.
  64. marijuana
    primary ingrediant is THC
  65. classical conditioning
    kind of learning which a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to produce a response that was originalls produced from a different stimulus
  66. law and effect
    says that if some random actions are followed by a pleasurable consequence , such actions are strengthened and will likely occur in the future
  67. operant conditioning
    consequences that follow some behavior increase or decrease the likelihood of that behaviors occurence in the future
  68. cognitive learning
    involves mental processes, observation or imitation
  69. neutral stimulus
    causes sensory response, such as being seen, heard or smelled but not produce the reflex
  70. unconditioned stimulus
    salivation or eye blink
  71. unconditioned response
    unlearned reflex
  72. conditioned stimulus
    formerly neutral stimulus that has acquired the ability to elicit response that was previously elicited by the unconditioned response.
  73. conditioned response
    elicited by the conditioned stimulus
  74. generalization
    similar odors
  75. discrimination
    new odor
  76. extinction
    procedure in which a conditioned stimulus and the conditioned stimulus tends to no longer elicit the conditioned response
  77. spontaneous recovery
    the older smell that you didnt like comes back up and reminds you of it again
  78. adaptive value
    usefullness of certain abilities or traits that have evolved in animals and humans and tend to increase their chances of survival
  79. taste-aversion
    associating a particular sensory cue withh getting sick and thereafter avoidin that taste
  80. preparedness
    refers to the phenomenon that animals and humas are biologically prepared to associate some combinations of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli more easily than othersq
  81. anticipatory nausea
  82. refers to feelings of nausea that are elicited by stimuli associated with nausea inducing chemotherapy treatments
  83. systematic desensitization
    procedure based on classical conditioning, in which a person imagines fearful stimuli and then imeediately uses deep relaxation to overcome the anxiety.

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