Stratum Synovium: Inner layer, highly vascularized but poorly innervated. Acts as an entry point of nutrients into the synovial fluid and as an exit point for waster products. Also helps produce Synovial Fluid
What happens if a diarthosis joint looses the receptors of the Stratum Fibrosum?
The loss of ability to perform coordinated movement. Receptors tell the brain where the joints are in relation to space.
Outer layer of the joint capsule
Poorly vascularized but richly innervated
Inner layer of the joint capsule
Highly vacularized, but poorly innervated
Entry point of nutrients into the synovial fluid
Exit point for waste products
Helps produce synovial fluid
Synovial Fluid is composed of which two compounds?
Creates viscosity (thickness) of the fluid
Which two factors affect the viscosity of the Synovial Fluid?
Speed in the Joint (increased speed = decreased viscosity)
Temperature in the Joint (increased temp. = decreased viscosity)
What are the two theories of Joint Lubrication?
Boundary Lubrication: Each weight bearing surface is coated w/ a thin layer of molecules which keeps the opposing surfaces from touching each other
Fluid Lubrication: Weight on joints increases the hydrostatic pressue of the synovial fluid which causes the articular cartilage to weep fluid over the articular surfaces
The study of movement of the joint surfaces (articular surfaces) and their interaction with each other
Three ways of Defining Movement
Which movement is produced by the combination of spinning and rolling?
Movement is dependent upon the ____________ of the _______________
surfaces, joint structure
There are two distinct __________ resulting in two different __________.
There are two distinct surfaces resulting in two different movement patterns
Two types of Joint Surfaces
Ovoid Joint: one surface is concave and the other surface is convex
Sellar Joint: Each joint surface is convex and concave
One surface is concave and the other surface is convex
The articulating surface of the bone moves in an opposite direction of the moving bone-- shoulder bone--
Each joint surface is convex and concave
The articulating surface of the bone moves in the same direction as the moving bone
ex) the knee joint
The movement of bones rather than the movement of the articulating surface
Which term is used to identify the MOVEMENT OF THE BONES
Range of Motion (ROM)
ROM -how are the anatomical limits determined?
Range which is availabe to a joint w/in the anatomical limits of the joint. The anatomical limits are determined by
--Shape of the joint surface
--The joint capsule
No longer functional movement in the joint (locked/fixed) more common w/ flexors
What is the material used in constructing human joints?
Connective tissue in the form of ligaments, tendons, bursae, cartilage, disks, plates, menisci, fat pads, etc.