Joint Structure & Function Exam 1

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Joint Structure & Function Exam 1
2011-10-05 20:33:25
Kinematics motion movement muscles joints connective tissue

Everything needed for Exam Thursday, October 6, 2011
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  1. Kinematics
    • Time, space, and mass aspects of a moving system (book definition)
    • Description of human motion/movement
    • Types of MOtion
    • Location of Movement
    • Magnitude of Movement
    • Joints Interaction
  2. How is Movement classified?
    • Activity that is...
    • functional or non-functional
    • on-going
    • has a specific starting & ending point
  3. What is the starting position for human movement?
    Anatomical Position
  4. How is the anatomical position described?
    • Static Position
    • Standing Erect
    • Head straight with eyes looking forward
    • Arms at the side, elbows straight
    • Palms of the hands facing forward
    • Knees straight
    • Toes pointing straight ahead
  5. Four Patterns of Human Movement
    • Rotary (angular movement)
    • Translatory (gliding movement)
    • Curvilinear Motion (rotary & translatory movement)
    • General Plane Motion (open-chain)
  6. Rotary (angular movement)
    • Movement of an object around a fixed point
    • All the parts of the object move through the same angle, in the same direction, and at the same time, but they do not move the same distance.
    • ex) Knee flexion: the foot travels farther through space than does the ankle or leg
  7. Translatory (linear, gliding movement)
    • Occurs in an "almost" straight line from one location to another
    • All the parts of the object move the same distance, in the same direction, and at the same time.
    • ex) sutures of the skull or an infant, TMJ (initial stage), carpal bones
  8. Curvilinear Motion
    • combined rotary & translation movement patterns (FUNCTIONAL)--most common type of movement
    • May be fixed or unfixed
    • ex) opening your mouth, sliding, spinning or rolling movements
  9. Transverse Plane
    Horizontal plane w/ a longitudinal axis tht divides the body into upper and lower halves
  10. Frontal Plane
    Verticla plane with an anterior/posterior axis that divides the body into front and back halves
  11. Sagittal Plane
    Vertical Plane w/ a frontal (coronal) axis hat divides the body into right and left halves
  12. Flexion
    movement around a joint axis where ventral surfaces are being approximated
  13. Extension
    Approximation of the dorsal surfaces
  14. Abduction
    Distal sigment moves away from the midline
  15. Adduction
    Distal segment moves toward the midline
  16. Lateral Flexion
    The segment that is moving is part of the midline of the body
  17. Medial (internal Rotation)
    Rotation toward the body's midline
  18. Lateral (external) Rotation
    Rotation away from the body's midline
  19. Magnitude of Motion
    • The measurement of the movement in terms of degrees
    • Used to measure ROM, helps to understand the beginning point of patients ability and progression
  20. Joint(s) Interaction
    -with what is it defined
    Kinematic Chains: A movement in one joint is accomplished by movement in adjacent joints
  21. Kinematic Chains (2 kinds)
    • Open Kinematic Chain: Movement is not predictable--General Plane Motion--more than one way to do something
    • Closed Kinematic Chain: Movement is predictable--distal segment is fixed
  22. Kinetics
    Study of forces (the forces causing movement)
  23. Force
    a push or pull of one object of another object
  24. External Force
    Gravity, water ressistance, wind
  25. Internal Force
    body weight, muscles, tendons, ligaments, diseases
  26. Body's own external/internal forces
    Friction, barometric pressure
  27. Center of Gravity (COG)
    • Hypothetical point at which all of our mass is located (balance point)
    • Generally near the center of most objects
  28. Where is the COG located on humans?
    Anterior to the 2nd sacral vertebra (S2)
  29. Factors which affect the stability of the COG (2)
    • The larger the base of support--> The greater the stability of the object
    • The closer the center of gravity is to the base of support --> the more stable the object
  30. Three Basic Principles in Determining Joint Structure & Function
    • The joint design is determined by the funtion of the joint and its component parts
    • The structure of a joint will determine its function
    • Single function joints create stability & complex function joints create mobility
  31. Single Function Joint
    • Creates stability
    • ex) sutures in teh cranium
  32. Complex Function Joint
    • Creates Mobility
    • ex) Hip Joint
  33. How many bones are in the body?
  34. Fibrous Joints (3 types)
    -what is a fibrous joint
    -what are the 3 types
    • Has a thin layer of fibrous periosteum between the two bones
    • 1) Synarthrosis
    • 2) Syndesmosis
    • 3) Gomphosis

    ex) sutures of the skull
  35. Synarthrosis Joints/Suture Joint
    • Has a thin layer of fibrous periosteum between the two bones, as in the sutures of the skull
    • The ends of the bones are shaped to allow them to interlock
    • ~no motion between the bones
    • Provides shape and strength
  36. Syndesmosis/Ligamentous Joint
    • Consists of lots of fibrous tissue (ligaments, interosseous/aponeurotic membranes, holding the joint together)
    • Small amount of twisting or stretching
    • ex) distal tibiofibular joint at the ankle and the distal radioulnar joint
  37. Gomphosis Joint
    • Peg-in-socket
    • ex) tooth inserted in the socket of the mandible
  38. Cartilaginous Joint/ Amphiarthrodial Joint
    • Either Hyaline Cartilage or Fibrocartilage b/t the two bones
    • Allow a small amount of motion (bending or twisting, and some compression)
    • Provide much stability
  39. Symphysis Joint
    Cartilaginous Joint composed of fibrocartilage material --symphysis pubis joint
  40. Synchondrosis
    • Hyaline Growth Cartilage in the developing skeletal system ossifies and converts to a body union
    • ex)first sternalcostal joint
  41. Diarthrodial Joint/Synovial Joint (book definition)
    • Cavity filled with synovial fluid contained within a capsule
    • Fibrous tissue holds the joint together
    • Synovial fluid lines the inner membrane that secretes the synovial fluid
    • Hyaline or Aticulare cartilage line the articular surface
    • Allows free motion
    • Not as stable as other joints
  42. Diarthrodial Joint/Synovial Joint (notes def.)
    --5 Parts--
    • Joint Capsule
    • Joint Cavity
    • Synovial Membrane
    • Synovial Fluid
    • Hyaline Cartilage
  43. Joint Capsule
    • Encapsulates the entire joint structure, made of fibrous tissue
  44. Joint Cavity
    • Enclosed by the entire joint capsule
    • -creates space b/t the bones reduces friction
    • -needed for articulation
  45. Synovial Membrane
    • Lines the inner surface of the capsule
    • Creates synovial fluid
  46. Synovial Fluid
    Forms a film over the joint surface
  47. Hyaline Cartilage
    • Covers the joint surface
    • Found on the ends of long bones
  48. Uniaxial Joints
    • One plane/axis of movement or 1 degree of freedom
    • a) Hinge Joint
    • b) Pivot Joint
  49. Hinge Joint (uniaxial joint)
    • Flexion/extension movement
    • Occurs in a sagittal plane/frontal axis
    • IP joints of the hand
  50. Pivot Joint (uniaxial joint)
    • Rotation
    • Occurs in transverse plane/longitudinal axis
    • ex) Median atlantoaxial joint: rotation of the skull over the odontoid process of teh axis (C1)
  51. Biaxial Joints
    • Two planes/axis of movement or 2 degrees of freedom
    • ex) Metacarpal Joints: knuckles of the hands
  52. Triaxial Joints
    • Three planes/axis of movement or 3 degrees of freedom
    • Motion occurs in a trasverse plane/longitudinal axis, frontal plane/a-p axis, sagittal plane/frontal axis
    • ex) ball & socket joints: hip joint: flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, internal roation/external rotation
  53. Diarthrosis Joints: Joint Capsule
    -what are the two layers
    -why are they important
    • Stratum Fibrosum: Outer layer, poorly vascularized but richly innervated w/ joint receptors
    • Stratum Synovium: Inner layer, highly vascularized but poorly innervated. Acts as an entry point of nutrients into the synovial fluid and as an exit point for waster products. Also helps produce Synovial Fluid
  54. What happens if a diarthosis joint looses the receptors of the Stratum Fibrosum?
    The loss of ability to perform coordinated movement. Receptors tell the brain where the joints are in relation to space.
  55. Stratum Fibrosum
    • Outer layer of the joint capsule
    • Poorly vascularized but richly innervated
  56. Stratum Synovium
    • Inner layer of the joint capsule
    • Highly vacularized, but poorly innervated
    • Entry point of nutrients into the synovial fluid
    • Exit point for waste products
    • Helps produce synovial fluid
  57. Synovial Fluid is composed of which two compounds?
    • Hyalutonate (hy-al-uronate)
    • Lubricin

    Creates viscosity (thickness) of the fluid
  58. Which two factors affect the viscosity of the Synovial Fluid?
    • Speed in the Joint (increased speed = decreased viscosity)
    • Temperature in the Joint (increased temp. = decreased viscosity)
  59. What are the two theories of Joint Lubrication?
    • Boundary Lubrication: Each weight bearing surface is coated w/ a thin layer of molecules which keeps the opposing surfaces from touching each other
    • Fluid Lubrication: Weight on joints increases the hydrostatic pressue of the synovial fluid which causes the articular cartilage to weep fluid over the articular surfaces
  60. Arthrokinematics
    The study of movement of the joint surfaces (articular surfaces) and their interaction with each other
  61. Three ways of Defining Movement
    • Rolling
    • Sliding
    • Spinning
  62. Which movement is produced by the combination of spinning and rolling?
    Curvilinear Movement
  63. Movement is dependent upon the ____________ of the _______________
    surfaces, joint structure
  64. There are two distinct __________ resulting in two different __________.
    There are two distinct surfaces resulting in two different movement patterns
  65. Two types of Joint Surfaces
    Ovoid Joint: one surface is concave and the other surface is convex

    Sellar Joint: Each joint surface is convex and concave
  66. Ovoid Joint
    • One surface is concave and the other surface is convex
    • The articulating surface of the bone moves in an opposite direction of the moving bone-- shoulder bone--
  67. Sellar Joint
    • Each joint surface is convex and concave
    • The articulating surface of the bone moves in the same direction as the moving bone
    • ex) the knee joint
  68. Osteokinematics
    • The movement of bones rather than the movement of the articulating surface
    • Important CLINICALLY
  69. Which term is used to identify the MOVEMENT OF THE BONES
    Range of Motion (ROM)
  70. ROM
    -how are the anatomical limits determined?
    • Range which is availabe to a joint w/in the anatomical limits of the joint. The anatomical limits are determined by
    • --Shape of the joint surface
    • --The joint capsule
    • --Ligaments
    • --Muscle bulk
    • --Surrounding Structures
  71. Hypermobility
    Increased/Accessive ROM
  72. Hypomobility
    Limited ROM
  73. Contracture
    No longer functional movement in the joint (locked/fixed) more common w/ flexors
  74. What is the material used in constructing human joints?
    Connective tissue in the form of ligaments, tendons, bursae, cartilage, disks, plates, menisci, fat pads, etc.
  75. What two parts make up CONNECTIVE TISSUE?
    • Cellular Component: produce/maintain extracellular matrix
    • Extracellular Matrix: non-firbrous component & fibrous component
  76. What is the function of the Cellular Component of Connective tissue?
    • Produce/Maintain extracellular matrix
    • Antibodies to fight infection in connective tissue
  77. Non Fibrous Component of the Extracellular Matrix
    ~what is the function~
    • Provides support
    • Attracks and binds water
    • Maintains hydration w/in the tissue w/ proteins (glycoprotein/proteoglycans)
  78. Fibrous Component of the Extracellular Matrix
    • Provides a support framework with the use of the 2 Proteins
    • --Collagen = Strength
    • --Elastin = Flexibility--yellow substance
  79. Connective Tissue Composition
    --Ligaments & Tendons--
    • 20% cellular components
    • 80% extracellular matrix: primarily the fibrous component--mix of elastin & collagen
  80. In tendons the _______________ dominate and is structured in _______________ with the tendon
    In tendons, the COLLAGEN PROTEIN dominate and is structured in PARALLE ARRANGEMENTS with the tendon.
  81. Bursae
    • Flat like sac with the inner lining of the sac composed with a synovial membrane. This embrane keeps the sac fille diwth a fluid film.
    • Located where movement occurs