Geography Midterm

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Geography Midterm
2011-10-16 01:23:26
Geography Midterm

Geography Midterm
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  1. Large vs small scale maps
    How many inches on the ground are represented by an inch on the map. 1:2400 is 1 map inch represents 200 feet, it's called large because the mathematical fraction.
  2. Know the different "regions"
    • a. Nodal Region – sometimes called a functional region, is characterized by a set of places connected by lines of communication or movement to another place that series as a focus (or node) for the entire set. (nodal because of common focuses), like a newspaper circulation area.
    • b. Uniform region – sometimes called a formal region, is a territory where one or more features are present throughout the area and absent or unimportant beyond it. i.e. the entire area where thecottonwood constitutes a significant part of the total tree cover. Multi-featured uniform regions summarize different types of information for a given area, usually subjective.
  3. Boundaries of regions?
    a. Boundaries between adjacent multi-featureregions are seldom sharp and well defined on the landscape, they blend intoeach other. They are transition zones, not sharp lines which make themdifficult to map.
  4. Meaning of "Scale"
    "a range of sizes" or "a different level of viewing"
  5. Percentage of Americans that move every Year?
  6. Percentage of Americans in agriculture....1997?
    less than 1%
  7. Know difference between basic and non basic activities
    • a. Basic activities – bringing income to a region from outside.
    • b. Non-Basic – non-basic activates recirculatemoney that is already in the region, i.e. local retail sales and services.
  8. Percentage of food exports from U.S.?
  9. How much oil U.S. and Candada import?
  10. Extent of coastal plains -- Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico?
    from northern Mexico along the East Coast of theUS to the southern margins of New England.
  11. Interior lowland bounded on east by what physiographic feature?
    The Appalachian and Rocky Mountains
  12. What is the "Driftless Area"?
    the area in SouthernWisconsin that was not glaciated
  13. Physiographic area most affected by glaciation?
    Canadian Shield
  14. Know latitude vs. longitude.
    66.5 Degree North Latitued (The artic circle is in what degree latitude)?
  15. Impact on climate by distance from coast/bodies of water?
    the farther you get away from the coast the greater the tempature variability is.
  16. Who was Koppen?
    person who invented the climatic scheme that most climatologists use when they map climates
  17. Layers of soil are called what?
    Soil Horizons
  18. Where are coal fields located in the U.S.?
    • E-Kentucky
    • West Virginia
    • And WesternPennsylvania
    • About 20%
  19. Three major rock types and their orgin?
    • Igneous Rocks-- Form directly from the cooling of magma
    • Metamorphic rock – formed by heat and pressure.
    • Sedimentary rock--rocks on the surface
  20. Name given to region of Canada for Inuits?
  21. Roughly know when different groups of immigrants came to U.S.?
    • 1820-1880, Ireland, Britain and Germany, Scandinavia
    • 1890-1910, Eastern Europe, italy, Russa
    • 1920-1990's, Latin America, Canada, Asia
  22. Most of Great Plains was settled in what years?
    between 1860 and 1890
  23. Population of Canada 2001?
    more than 30 million
  24. Greatest number of Canadians live within 150 kilometers of U.S....%?
  25. Know different major occupation groups...i.e., primary, ect...
    • Primary, or extractive, sector (agriculture,
    • mining, fishing, lumbering)
    • Secondary, or manufacturing, sector (steel, chemicals, consumer products ect…
  26. What is Break-of Bulk point?
    where goods and people transfer from one transportation mode to another.
  27. Has number of American farmers been increasing/decereasing?
  28. What is "culture"?
    the meaningis debated, general level is "people's assemblage of beliefs and learned behavior".
  29. Where Mormen religion founded....not Utah!
    upstate New York
  30. What was Manifest Destiny?
    John L O'Sullivan coined it in the Democratic Reviiw about the country's "manifest destiny to overspread and possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of a great experiment of liberty and federated self government"
  31. Physical culture versus human culture?
  32. Where do we find a "fall line" along the east coast?
    • Where rivers flow off the Piedmont, therefore, a series of rapids and small waterfalls form.
    • Because these falls are found along a line tracing the physiographic boundary, this boundary has been named the “Fall Line”
  33. Site and situation definitions/examples?
    Site characteristics of a place refer to the physical features that make up the immediate environment of that places location, many site characteristics are visible in the regions outline. Deeply convoluted.

    Situation is the location relative to otherplaces. One of the most important aspects of Megalopolis’s situation is itsposition relative to Europe.
  34. What is Megalopis?
    Good harbors, good routes to the interior, a location between regions conducting trade – all are accessibility resources.
  35. Define "Exurbia"?
    People moving past the suburban fringe, to farther areas out of the city.
  36. Have property values been rising in Megalopolis?
  37. What has been happenin in New York City jobs during last few decades?
    • Industry jobs are on the decline, the service jobs are up the most followed by a long shot, manufacturing, construction, finance, insurance, real estate, and bovernement jobs. On whole, from 1968-2006
    • there is a net change of +294.9
  38. Gentrification?
    A once slow aging of the interior suburbs that are being fixed up. It is the inflow of population as central city residences are rehabilitated in ways that attract middle and upper income families and individuals.
  39. Location of major metallic minerals in N America?
    It's called the "manufacturing Core". It overlaps several territories Parts of We, IL, MI but mostly In, OH, PA, NY and the North Eastern states
  40. N.Y. Central Railroad passed through what valley?
    The valley of the Mohawk River in central New York.
  41. What where the factors that helped Pittsburgh become an industrial center?
    It is situated in the western foothills of the Appalachian Mountains, where the Monongahela and Allegheny Rivers join to create the great Ohio River. Basically, the split river helped.
  42. Name the major port city along the east coast U.S./harbors?
    New England, was exceptional within the eastern core, it’s called North America’s manufacturing hearth.
  43. Product of the Mesabi Range?
    Iron ore
  44. What city runs along Cuyahoga River?
    Cleveland, OH
  45. Two major eastern port cities in Canada?
    • Hamilton
    • Toronto – much larger than Hamilton.
  46. When did French settlements begin to settle in St. Lawrence River Valley?
  47. Know three major rock types, which predominant in Canadian Shield?
    Igneous and metamorphic rock cover most of the core
  48. Early European settlers in Ontario were?
  49. Canadian province tried to secede from country?
  50. Rang system?
    Best farmland in Southern Quebec
  51. What major crops are grown in Canada?
    Grapes, peaches and sweet cherries
  52. Largest population city in Canada?
  53. Canadian city known for its iron and steel industry?
  54. American investment in Canada greatest what two areas/industires?
  55. Mining and manufacturing industries
  56. Adirondack Mountains part of what physical feature?
    Canadian shield
  57. General climate of the Bypassed East?
    cold and wet
  58. Regional resources of Bypasses East?
  59. Offshore banks of Bypasses East noted for it's what?
  60. What is the Annapolis Valley know for it's what?
    Apple producing
  61. new Englands dominate tree?
    NOT balsam fir, white pine, jack pine and spruce
  62. Be familiar with major Milksheds.
    Not enough supply for milk so they store the milk and keep it local.
  63. Aroostook Valley, what product?
  64. Forestry most important in what state?
  65. What has been happening to fishing industry in Bypassed East recently?
    • It's a nice place to fish, other countries are coming in and taking the fish.
    • Also, petroleum threatens fishing
  66. Canadian (Atlantic) province has largest mining operation?
    Labrador near quebec border
  67. Largest city in Bypassed East is ?
    Nova Scotia, 359,183 people
  68. Which state in Bypassed East has highest per capita income?
    New Hampshire
  69. Know the regional names for different parts of Appalachians.
    Ridge and valley province and blue ridge province
  70. Why are lowland areas of Ridge and Valley fertile?
    because, use your head! It's too late to be reading this frickin crap! I'll do fine on the exam!
  71. Where are the communities on the Appalachian Plateau located?
    blah, figure it out!
  72. The first settlers into the Great Valley settled in what state first?
  73. Did plantation economies flourish in Appalachia?
    yes, it dominated it
  74. Only state completely within Appalachia?
    West Virginia
  75. Moonhine?
  76. What is "overburden"?
    the stripping of the horizonal rocks, the waste was called overburden
  77. First mission of TVA was ?
    to develope the Tennessee River for navigation.
  78. Primary mission of the ARC was?
    to improve Appalachia's highways, hoping to decrease local isolation and encouragge location of new industries.
  79. Important crop in early South?
  80. Were Native Americans ever used as slaves?
  81. What was "Trail of Tears"?
    The Trail of Tears is a name given to the relocation and movement of Native American nations from southeastern parts of the United States following the Indian Removal Act of 1830
  82. Where did Cajuns move to Louisiana from?
    Catholic French exiles who left Acadia (now Nova scotia and New Brunswick).
  83. Before 1840 where did most European settlers come from?
    British Isle
  84. What was "sharecropping"?
    Sharecropping is a system of agriculture in which a white landowner allows a tenant (usually black) to use the land in return for a share of the crop produced on the land (e.g. 50% of the crop).
  85. When did pulp and paper industries develop in the South?
  86. What was "Pittsburgh plus" pricing?
    • Atlanta-Brimingham-Chattanooga are could produce steel cheaper than Pittsburgh because everything was near. Because of this, Pittsburgh's United States Steel Company imposed a discriminatory shipping rate increase on Birmingham-manufactured products.
    • Consumers of Alabama steel paid the price of steel at Pittsurgh plus $3.00 per ton ($2.72/MT) plus regular freight costs. Making it cheaper to buy Pitts steel than locally.
  87. Jim Crow law?
    • Jim Crow Law mandated de jure racial segregation in all public facilities, with a supposedly "separate but equal" status for black Americans.
    • This was over turned by Brown V. Board of Education of Topeka.
  88. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka...why important issue?
    The white schools were getting much more funding than black schools which led to the Brown V. Board of Ed of Topeka in 1954. This reversed the existing separate buy equal doctrine and ending de jure segregation.