bio cells

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Author:
babaghannouj
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106772
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bio cells
Updated:
2011-10-18 15:45:01
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biology cells
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bio ch 3
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  1. who discovered penicillin
    • alexander fleming, 1928
    • specifically the fungus penicillium notatum
  2. antibiotic
    • chemical that can slow or stop the growth of bacteria
    • they preferentially kill bacteria without harming their human or animal host because they target what is unique about bacterial cells 1 peptidoglycan of bacterial cell walls 2 prokaryotic ribosomes
  3. cell theory
    comcept that all living organisms are made of cells and that cells are formed by the reproduction of existing cells
  4. what do all cells have in common
    • cell membrane
    • ribosomes
    • DNA
  5. what are the 2 kinds of cells
    • prokaryotic
    • eukaryotic
  6. what are the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
    • eukaryotic cells have organelles and prokaryotic don't
    • eukaryotic cells have a nucleus, prokaryotic don't
    • prokaryotic cells have a cell wall, eukaryotic don't
  7. cell membrane
    • phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins that forms the boundary of all cells
    • acts as a boundary between teh external environment and the cell's cytoplasm
    • prevents many large molecules, like glucose, and hydrophilic substances, like sodium ions, from entering the cell
  8. cytoplasm
    gelatinous, aqueous interior of all cells
  9. ribosome
    complex of RNA and protein that carries out protein synthesis in all cells
  10. nucleus
    the organelle in eukaryotic cells that contains the genetic material
  11. cell wall
    rigid structure enclosing the cell membrane of some cells that helps the cell maintain its shape
  12. osmosis
    the diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration
  13. peptidoglycan
    macromolecule that froms all bacterial cell walls and provides rigidity to the cell wall
  14. gram-positive
    bacteria with a cell wall that includes a thick layer of peptidoglycan that retains the Gram stain
  15. Gram-negative
    bacteria with a cell wall that includes a thin layer of peptidoglycan surrounded by an outer lipid membrane that does not retain the Gram stain
  16. what is the implication of Gram stain
    if a bacteria is Gram-positive it can be affected by antibiotics that target the peptidoglycan
  17. simple diffusion
    • movement of small, hydrophobic molecules across a membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
    • does not require energy
  18. transport proteins
    • proteins involved in the movement of molecules across the cell membrane
    • they sit in the membrane bilayer with one of their ends ouside the cel and the other inside
    • act as a channel, carrier, or pump to provide a passageway for large or hydrophilic molecules to cross the membrane
    • they are specific: a protein that transports glucose will not transport calcium ions
  19. facilitated diffusion
    • the process by which large or hydrophilic solutes move across a membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration with the help of transport proteins
    • requires no energy
  20. active transport
    • the process by which solutes are pumped from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration with the help of transport proteins
    • requires energy
  21. nuclear envelope
    double membrane surrounding the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell
  22. mitochondria
    • membrane-bound organelles responsible for important energy-conversion reactions in eukaryotes
    • they help extract energy from food and and convert it to a useful form
    • surrounded by 2 membranes: outer and inner, the inner is highly folded
  23. endoplasmic reticulum
    • membrane-enclosed series of passages in eukaryotic cells in which proteins and lipids are synthesized
    • serve as a transport system throughout the cell
  24. explain the rough ER and the smooth ER
    • rough ER is studded with ribosomes that are making proteins
    • smooth ER is the site of lipid production
  25. golgi apparatus
    • organelle made up of stacked membrane-enclosed discs that packages proteins and prepares them for transport
    • modifies and packages proteins produced in the rough ER.
    • the processed molecules are packaged into membrane vesicles, then targeted and transported to their final destinations - 1 cell membrane 2 secreted from cell 3 various locations within the cell
  26. chloroplast
    • organelle in plant and algal cells that is the site of photosynthesis
    • have 2 membranes surrounding them, as well as an internal system of stacked membrane discs
  27. lysosome
    • organelle in eukaryotic cells filled with enzymes that can degrade worn-out cellular structures or molecules
    • the resulting products can be used to build new structures
  28. cytoskeleton
    network of protein fibers in eukaryotic cells that provides structure and facilitates cell movement
  29. endosymbiosis
    the theory that free-livving prokaryotic cells engulfed other free-living prokaryotic cells billions of years ago, forming eukaryotic organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts
  30. what are the similarities between animal and plant cells
    • nucleus
    • endoplasmic reticulum
    • ribosomes
    • mitochondria
    • golgi apparatus
  31. what are the differences between animal and plant cells
    • chloroplast
    • cellulose cell wall
    • water vacuole
  32. what are the 3 types of cytoskeleton fibers
    • microfilament
    • intermediate filaments
    • microtubule
    • all made up of monomers
  33. explain production and transport of proteins in a cell
    • DNA provides instructions for protein production via RNA
    • proteins are made in the ER and packaged into vesicles for transport to the golgi
    • proteins receive final modifications in the golgi and are packaged into vesicles for transport to the site of protein function - cell membrane, secretion from cell, various locations within cell
  34. function of mitochondria
    carry out critical steps in the extraction of energy from food and the conversion of that energy to a useful form
  35. what happens when certain antibiotics such as penicillin interact with peptidoglycan
    targets the synthesis of peptidoglycan allowing for osmosis, when this occurs the cells lyse (take on too much water and "blow")
  36. how does the other kind of antibiotic work on Gram-negative bacteria
    • inhibit the ribosomes interrupting the synthesis of protein
    • eukaryotic ribosomes are different and therefore protein production is unaffected
  37. organelles
    • the membrane-bound compartments of eukaryotic cells that carry out specific functions
    • membrane is similar to the cell's outer membrane and separates the organelle from the cell's cytoplasm
  38. cytoskeletal fibers
    • microfilaments
    • intermediate filaments
    • microtubule
    • each type of cytoskeletal fiber has a specific structure and function
  39. characteristics of mitochondria and chloroplasts
    • about the same size as bacteria
    • they divide in a manner that is similar to prokaryotic cells
    • contain circular strands of DNA
    • contains ribosomes that are structurally similar to prokaryotes
  40. what would happen if bacterial cells didn't have a cell wall?
    they would fill up with water and lyse due to osmosis
  41. how are ribosomes different in prokaryotic vs eukaryotic cells
    • size
    • structure

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