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  1. Endoplasmic reticulum
    • a network of membranes which form channels and compartments throughout the cytoplasm of a cell
    • membranes enclose channels
  2. Mitochondrion
    • sites for celluar respiration
    • converts energy of food into a usable form of ATP
  3. Ribosomes
    • Sites of the production of proteins
    • ribosomes attach to membranes and are sometimes found in an endoplasmic reticulum
  4. Chloroplasts
    • only found in photosynthetic plant cells
    • contains membrane stacks of chlorophll or "grana"
    • the "stroma" zone is where chemical reactions occur
  5. Golgi apparatus
    • semi circualar arrangement of membranes which package chemicals into small membranes sacs or "vesicles" for strorage or secretion from the cell
  6. Lysosomes
    • formed in the golgi body
    • these membrane sacs contain digestive enzymes which can destroy foreign proteins which enter the cell
  7. Membranes
    • all cell organelles are built from or surrounded by membranes
  8. Eucaryotic
    • a group of organsisms which includes plants and animals
  9. Inorganic chemicals
    • small simple molecules like H2O and CO2
  10. Carbohydrates
    • are inorganic chemicals
  11. Organic chemicals
    • are based on carbon which can form chains,rings and networks to build complex molecules needed to make a living cell
    • there are four categories: proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
  12. Proteins
    Are the main structural chemical of organelles, cells, bone, skin and hair.
  13. Lipids
    • fats and oils
    • All cell membranes are built from lipid and protein
    • organic chemical
    • lipids are used as a way to store excess energy food
    • carbohydrates can be converted to lipids for storage
  14. Nucleic acids
    • (DNA & RNA)
    • DNA is the genetic information of every cell
    • RNA is the messenger sent from the nucleus to control all cell activities
  15. Membrane structure
    • two layers of phospholipids form each membrane
    • molecules cling to each other and line up with their hydrophilic ends
  16. Diffusion
    • the movement of molecules or ions from an area of higher concentration toward a lower concentration
  17. Osmosis
    • a special case of diffusion
    • diffusion of water through a semi permeable membrane against the concentration gradient of solutes
    • occurs when the solutes cannot penetrate the membrane bu the water can
  18. Autotroph
    • is an organism that makes its own food
    • All plants are autotrophic making their own food by photosynthesis
  19. Heterotroph
    • any organism that cannot make its own food
    • Includes animals, fungi and bacteria
  20. Xylem tubes
    Carry water and minerals upwards towards leaves in plants
  21. Phloem tubes
    Carry food from the leaves to any part of te plant which cannot photosynthesize
  22. Stomates
    Lower leaf surfaces have openings called stomates or pores
  23. Lenticels
    Simple structures on the stems and truncks of plants which allow gas exchange to the cells by diffusion of air
  24. Translocation
    The movement of food via the phloem
  25. Active transport operations
    Energy is needed to cause material to flow
  26. Cytokinesis
    When cell membranes grow to divide the cell in two parts with a share of cytoplasms an organelles in each
  27. Mitosis
    Division of the cell nucleus
  28. Chromosomes
    DNA is contained in chromosomes which are not normally visable
Card Set:
2011-10-06 02:18:46
biology patterns nature

biology topic patterns in nature
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