Contemp. Soci

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Contemp. Soci
2011-10-06 21:28:51

Quiz 1
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  1. Theory
    A system of generalized statements or propositions about phenomena
  2. European Enlightenment
    • A period of remarkable intellectual development.
    • Occurred during late 17th and early 18th century
    • Emphasized reason
  3. Civil society
    Open spaces of debate relatively free from government control.
  4. Auguste Comte
    • Coined the term "sociology"
    • Used the term "social physics"
  5. Emile Durkheim
    Arguably most instrumental in laying the groundwork for the merging discipline of sociology.
  6. Counter-Enlightenment
    • Conservative reaction to the enlightenment in the late 18th century.
    • Wary of the unabashed embrace of rationality, technology, and progress
    • Focused on the importance of nonrational factors rather than reason (tradition)
  7. Industrial Revolution
    The complex of radical socioeconomic changes the occurred in England in 18th century as extensive mechanization & factory production replaced home-based, hand production.
  8. Collective Order/ Approach
    • Theoritical orientation that focuses on the power that the overarching structures of society have on individuals and groups in decision making
    • The patterns of social life are seen primarily as the product of existing social arrangements
  9. Individual Order/ Approach
    • Theoritical orientation that focuses on the autonomy of individual actors in maiing decisions and their ability to affect the social order
    • The patterns of social life are seen as primarily emerging from ongoing interaction
  10. Nonrational motivation for action/ Nonrational Action
    Actions motivated primarily by ideals, values, norms, morals, traditons, habits, or emotional states.
  11. Rational motivation for action/ Rational Action
    Actions motivated primarily by a strategic or calculated attempt to maximize rewards and benefits while reducing costs.
  12. Subjective Reason
    • Horkheimer
    • Type of reasoning that is concerned w/ the means or the most efficient way of acheiving a goal and not whether the goal iteself is a "reasonable" pursuit.
  13. Objective Reason
    • Horkheimer
    • Type of reasoning that is considers the relative value of the goals of action and thus provides a basis for determining what is just or right.
  14. Individualistic Rationality
    • Marcuse
    • An oppositional or critical attitude that allows for negating the status quo and hence critcally understanding one's world
    • to freely develop personal objectives & achieve them through rational methods
  15. Technological Rationality
    • Marcuse
    • Type of rationality that is marked by a scientific approach to all human affairs and that promotes unquestioned conformity to the external, standarized dictates of efficiency, convenience, and the pursuit of profit.
  16. Surplus repression
    • Marcuse
    • Level of repressions that unneccesarily impedes the gratification of individuals' instinctual desires in order to maintain existing relations of domination
  17. Repressive Desublimation
    • Marcuse
    • False freedoms offered by the managed, controlled liberalization of sexual behaviors and more that increase the satisfaction with the existing social order.
  18. Culture Industry
    • Adorno
    • Sectors involved in the creation and distribution of mass culture products.
    • TV, film, radio, music, magazines, newspapers, books, & advertisments that churn out mass-produced, standarized commodities and ideas that abort and silence criticism.
  19. Pseudo-individualization
    • Adorno
    • Standarized, mass-produced cultural products endowed w/ a deceptive halo of free choice
  20. Meaning
    • Blumer
    • A response to a gesture developed within the social act
  21. Interpretaion
    • Blumer
    • A behavioral-thinking process that entails constructing the meaning of another's actions as well as one's own.
  22. Joint Action
    • Blumer
    • Group action between 2 or more participants
  23. Impression Management
    • Goffman
    • The verbal and nonverbal practices we employ in an attempt o present an acceptable image of our self to others.
  24. Definition of the Situation
    • Goffman
    • A phase of examination and deliberation preliminary to any self-determined act or behavior, during which an individual enters a situation and seeks out information about others.
  25. Demeanor
    • Goffman
    • Conduct and dress displayed by individuals during their performances
  26. Front
    • Goffman
    • The intentionally or unintentionally given performance by an individual toward others.
    • What an individual shows towards others
  27. Backstage
    • Goffman
    • The area of a performance normally unobserved by and restricted from members of the audience
  28. Character
    • Goffman
    • The self understood as a product of interaction.
    • A dramatic effect or image fabricated in concert with others during an encounter
  29. Performer
    • Goffman
    • The self understood as derived from an individual's unique psychobiology.
    • The core of an individual's personality that lies behind and manages his performances
  30. Total Institutions
    • Goffman
    • Places of residence or work where a alrge number of like-situated individuals, cut off from the wider society for an appreciable length of time, together lead an enclosed, formally administered round of life
  31. Mortification of Self
    • Goffman
    • The process of stripping an individual of her multiple selves and replacing them with one totalizing identity, under which the individual exercises little if any control of her actions
  32. Secondary Adjustments
    • Goffman
    • Ways in which individuals attempt to stand apart from the roles and the self that are imposed on them by the institutions to which they are attached
  33. Emotion Work
    • Hochschild
    • Efforts to alter or manage the intensity or type of feelings that one is experiencing
  34. Emotional Labor
    • Hochschild
    • When one's deep-acting (self-induced effort to rpoduce a real feeling) or emtoion work is sold for a wage
  35. Commidification of Feeling
    • Hochschild
    • When or natural capacity to enage in emotion work is sold for a wage and bought to serve a profit motive.
    • As a result, our feelings become engineered to further corporate and organization interests
  36. Feeling Rules
    • Horchschild
    • Shared social conventions that determine what we should feel in a given situation, how intensely we should feel it, and how long we should feel it
  37. Significant Gestures
    • Blumer
    • Words and actions whose meanings are shared by all of those involved in a social act
  38. Self
    • Goffman
    • A managed impression composed of the character and performer
  39. Bracketing
    • Schutz
    • A systematic process of narrowing preceptionand cognition by sidestepping existing assumptions about the external world
  40. Intersubjectivity
    • Schutz
    • Shared stocks of knowledge or a shared consciousness among individuals
  41. Lifeworld
    • Schutz
    • The world of existing assumptions as they are experienced and made meaningful in consciousness
  42. Stocks of Knowledge
    • Schutz
    • Relatively unconscious, taken-for-granted experiences or knowledge that provide actors with rules for interpreting interactions, social relationships, organizations, institutions, and the physical world
  43. Typification
    • Schutz
    • The process through which actors isolate the generic characteristics that are relevant for their particular interactive goal
  44. Recipes
    • Schutz
    • Knowledge from experiences or shared stocks of knowledge that are implicit instructions for everyday life
  45. Habitualization
    • Berger & Luckmann
    • The process by which the flexibility of human actions is limited, as repeated actions become routinized
  46. Institutionalization
    • Berger & Luckmann
    • The process by which there is a recipricol typification of a routized or habitualized action by tyoes of actors.
  47. Externalization
    • Berger & Luckmann
    • The process by which human activity and society attain the character of objectivity
  48. Objectivation
    • Berger & Luckmann
    • The process by which human activity and society attain the character of objectivity
  49. Reification
    • Berger & Luckmann
    • The extreme step in the process of externalization in which human activity and society attain the character of objectivity to such an extent that the real relationship between humans and their world is reversed in consciousness.
  50. Internalization
    • Berger & Luckmann
    • The process by which the individual subjectivity is attained.
  51. Primary Socialization
    • Berger & Luckmann
    • The 1st socialization that an individual undergoes in childhood through which he becomes a member of society
  52. Social Construction of Reality
  53. Secondary Socialization
    • Berger & Luckmann
    • Processes of socialization that continue throughout an individual's life, and induct an already socialized individual into new sectors of society
  54. Accounting Practices
    • Garfinkel
    • A process whereby individuls attempt to order and make sense of their everyday world by constructing and attributing motives from the past to the present
  55. Breaching experiments
    • Garfinkel
    • Experiments designed to study everyday interaction through disrupting normal procedures in order to expose them.
  56. Indexicality
    • Garfinkel
    • Words, expressions, and practical actions have different meanings in differing contexts.
  57. Horkheimer
    • Subjective reason
    • Objective reason
  58. Hochschild
    • Commiclification of feeling
    • Emotion work
    • Emotional labor
    • Feeling rules
  59. Adorno
    • Pseudo-individualization
    • Culture industry
  60. Marcuse
    • Surplus repression
    • Technological rationality
    • Individualistic rationality
    • Repressive desublimation
  61. Blumer
    • Joint Action
    • Interpretation
    • Meaning
    • Significant gestures
  62. Schutz
    • Bracketing
    • Lifeworld
    • Intersubjectivity
    • Stocks of knowledge
    • Typification
    • Recipes
  63. Goffman
    • Backstage
    • Character
    • Demeanor
    • Definition of the situation
    • Front
    • Impression Management
    • Mortification of self
    • Performer
    • Total Institutions
    • Self
    • Secondary Adjustments
  64. Garfinkel
    • Accounting practices
    • Breaching experiments
    • Indexicality
  65. Berger & Luckmann
    • Habitualization
    • Institutionalization
    • Externalization
    • Objectivation
    • Reification
    • Internalization
    • Primary Socialization
    • Secondary Socialization