Human Biology Ch 16 & 17

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Human Biology Ch 16 & 17
2011-10-18 22:18:17
Human Biology 16 17

Human Biology Ch 16 & 17
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  1. Endocrine system
    internal system of regulation of communication involving hormones, glands that secrete them, an dparticular cells that respond to the hormones.
  2. target cells
    cells that respond to a particular hormone
  3. hormones
    chemicals that travel through the circulatory system and act as signals to elicit a response from target cells
  4. what are the 2 ways hormones elicit a response?
    • bind to receptors on target cells surface and trigger change inside a cell
    • hormones diffuse across cell membrane to bind receptors inside the cell to trigger the response
  5. steroid
    fat soluable hormones that can cross cell membranes and bind to receptors inside the target cell causing cells to turn specific genes on or off
  6. What happens when a hormone binds to a receptor?
    causes cells to turn specific genes on or off
  7. what is a female hormone?
    What is the male hormone?
    • estrogen
    • testosterone
  8. Endocrine glands
    groups of cells or organs that secrete hormones
  9. kidneys produce ___ which function to ____
    • erythropoietin
    • stimulate production of red blood cells
  10. digestive tract produces ____ which_____
    • gastrin
    • stimulates stomach to release hydrochloric acid during digestion
  11. The thyroid secretes____which_____
    • calcitonin
    • lowers blood clacium levels
  12. The parathyroid secretes ____which _____
    • parathyroid hormone
    • raises blood calcium levels
  13. The thymus secretes ___ and ___ which __-
    • Thyomin
    • Thymopoietin
    • helps T cells mature
  14. The pancrease secretes ___ and ____ which ____
    • insulin
    • glucagon
    • raise and lower blood glucose levels
  15. The hypothalamus secretes ___ and ___ which ____
  16. cause pituitary to store or secrete horomones
  17. The pituitary secretes ___which ____
    • pituitary gonadotropins
    • produce sex differences, follicle stimulating hormones, luteinizing hormones, release of egg during ovulation, sperm production, testosterone production
  18. The adrenal glands secrete____and___ and___and___which
    • adrenaline
    • androgens
    • estrogen
    • testosterone
    • raise blood glucose levels, promote fat breakdodwn, suppress inflammation, regulate levels of sodium potassium in blood, acts on liver, muscle and fat to raise blood sugar, increase heart rate, regulate blood vessel diamters and increase respiration
  19. The pineal glad secrete ___which____
    • melatonin
    • helps regulate sleep
  20. Testes produce___which____
    • testosterone
    • aids in sperm production, produce muscle mass, voice deepening
  21. The ovaries produce ____ and ____ which
  22. regulate menstruation, maturation of egg cells, breast development, pregnancy and menopause
  23. When does puberty typically occur for boys?
    • 9-14 13
    • 8-13 11
  24. five functions of the skeletal system
    • support for body
    • protect internal organs
    • aid in movement
    • store minerals
    • produce red blood cells
  25. What is the function of cartilage?
    protects ends of bones from degradation
  26. How many bones make up the skeleton?
  27. Axial skeleton
    supports trunk of body and consists largely of bones making up vertebral column or spine and skull
  28. Appendicular skeleton
    bones of hip, shoulder, and limbs
  29. List 3 types of joints and locations
    • ball and socket - hips and shoulders
    • hinge joint - knee, elbow
    • pivot joint - neck
  30. compact bone
    form hard outer shell of bones
  31. spongy bone
    porous, honeycomb like inner bone
  32. function of bone marrow
    helps produce blood cells
  33. osteoblast and function
    help bone tissue regenerate itself by process called bone deposition
  34. osteoclast and function
    involved in breaking down or reabsorbin bone tissue
  35. Four functions of calcium
    • blood clot
    • muscle contractions
    • product of nerve impulses
    • activity of many enzymes
  36. women have longer torsos or lower center of gravity than men
  37. What six bones different between men and women
    • mandible
    • temporal bones
    • frontal bones (2)
    • ossa cossae (2)
  38. Define Q angle and why it is important
    angle formed between kneecap, femur, and line of tendon from kneecap to shin bone
  39. Three muscle types
    • smooth
    • skeletal
    • cardiac
  40. Define antagonistic muscle pairs and give examples
    • each muscle is paired with a muscle of the opposite effect
    • bicep and tricep
  41. List 3 differences between slow and fast twitch muscles
  42. a muscle fiber is a muscle cell
  43. myofibril
    parallel array of thread-like filaments that give skeletal muscle striped appearance
  44. sarcomere
    unit of contraction of a muscle fiber
  45. a sarcomere is composed of what 2 filaments?
    • actin
    • myosin
  46. what is a Z disc?
    two dark lines in the myofibril
  47. describe a muscle contraction
    the sarcomere of a myofibril consists of actin molecules attached to z disc and myosin molecules - using energy from ATP, the myosin heads bind to actin and pulls it toward the center. Since this happens at both ends of the sarcomere it shortens, allowing contraction of muscle cell and movement of muscle.
  48. Puberty increases the number of muscle fibers
  49. Women store fat in what areas?
    • abdomen
    • buttocks
    • hips
    • thighs
    • torso
  50. Men store fat in what area
  51. why do women need more body fat
    maintain fertility
  52. women have greater tolerance for endurance events than men
  53. what is the healthy body fat ranges for men
    • 3-29
    • 12-32
  54. what are the benefits of athletic competition and exercise?
    • less likely to drop out of school, drink, smoke
    • teaches teamwork, discipline, pride in accomplishments, drive, dedication
    • decreased heart disease obesity, diabetes, many cancers
    • lowered cholesterol, decrease anxiety and depression
  55. Endocrine disruptors
    disrupt actions of hormone-producing system
  56. two types of organisms that do binary fission
    ameobas, sponges
  57. budding
    asexual reproduction - cell division that produces daughter cells which remain attached to the parent cell until it grows enough to break away
  58. advantages of asexual reproduction
    • no need to find a partner
    • allows for rapid reproduction
  59. gonads
    two gametes combine genetic information
  60. zygote
    formation of 2 haploid gametes
  61. What pesticide is under study to see if it causes reproductive deformities?
  62. advantages of large gametes?
    small gametes?
    • more stable
    • more mobile
  63. male reproductive system?
    • penis
    • seminol vesicle
    • prostate
    • testis
    • scrotum
    • bulbourethal glands
    • epididymous
    • vas deferens
    • urethra
    • siminiferous tubules
    • rectum
    • pubic bone
    • erectile tissue
    • glans penis
  64. female reproductive system
    • ovary
    • oviduct
    • uterus
    • endometrium
    • urethra
    • clitoris
    • vulva
    • urinary opening
    • vaginal opening
    • rectum
    • vagina
    • cervix
  65. Where does sperm come from?
  66. What are the sperm carrying ducts?
    vas deferens
  67. Why is the seminal vesicles important?
    They give energy to sperm
  68. What is the prostate glands' function?
    Give nutrients to sperm
  69. semen
    sperm combined with other secretions
  70. male gonads
    female gonads
    • testicles
    • ovaries
  71. endometrium
    internal suface of the uterine wall
  72. cervix
    lower third of uterus
  73. oviducts
    top of uterus(fallopian tubes)
  74. Gametogenesis
    productioon of sex cells
  75. STDs
    • chlamydia
    • gonorhea
    • pid
    • syphillis
    • aids
    • genital warts
    • hepititis B
    • herpes simplex
    • pubic lice
    • trichomoniasis
    • yeast
  76. gametes contain ___chromosomes
  77. stertoli cells
    cells that aid the developing sperm and are located in the seminiferous tubules
  78. 3 pieces of sperm cell
    head, midpiece, tail
  79. follicles
    structure in an ovary that containes developing ovum and secretes estrogen
  80. polar bodies
    small structures not involved in fertilization
  81. corpus luteum
    remnant of graafian follicle, minus oocyte, secretes reproductive hormones
  82. how long does it take for an unfertilized egg to move to the uterus?
    3 days
  83. 90% of male infertility are due to
    sperm production and formation
  84. what role do hormones play in menstrual cycle?
    trigger release of egg, aid in development of egg
  85. What triggers the uterine wall lining to shed?
    progesteron and estrogen levels fall, triggering uterus to spasm
  86. how many sperm reach the egg in the oviduct?
  87. Follicle cell
    sorrounds and nourishes egg
  88. zona pellucida
    transluscent covering on an egg
  89. embryo
    first divison of zygote until body structures begin to appear
  90. fetus
    after the 9th week of pregnancy
  91. 3 layers of gastrulation
    • outer - ectoderm - skin, sensory organs
    • middle- mesoderm - skeletal, circulatory, muscles, excretory,
    • inner - endoderm - respiratory, digestive
  92. cryptorchidism
    undescended testes
  93. trophoblast
    outer ring of cells that becomes the placenta
  94. what is exchanged between mother and fetus?
    nutrients and waste
  95. prolactin
    hormone that stimulates mammary glands
  96. three environmental chemicals that pregnant woment should avoid
    mercury, 2nd hand smoke, alcohol
  97. amnion
    fluid filled sac that surrounds fetus
  98. 3 stages of labor
    • cervix enlarges
    • delivery of baby
    • delivery of placenta