Human Biology Ch 16 & 17

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  1. Endocrine system
    internal system of regulation of communication involving hormones, glands that secrete them, an dparticular cells that respond to the hormones.
  2. target cells
    cells that respond to a particular hormone
  3. hormones
    chemicals that travel through the circulatory system and act as signals to elicit a response from target cells
  4. what are the 2 ways hormones elicit a response?
    • bind to receptors on target cells surface and trigger change inside a cell
    • hormones diffuse across cell membrane to bind receptors inside the cell to trigger the response
  5. steroid
    fat soluable hormones that can cross cell membranes and bind to receptors inside the target cell causing cells to turn specific genes on or off
  6. What happens when a hormone binds to a receptor?
    causes cells to turn specific genes on or off
  7. what is a female hormone?
    What is the male hormone?
    • estrogen
    • testosterone
  8. Endocrine glands
    groups of cells or organs that secrete hormones
  9. kidneys produce ___ which function to ____
    • erythropoietin
    • stimulate production of red blood cells
  10. digestive tract produces ____ which_____
    • gastrin
    • stimulates stomach to release hydrochloric acid during digestion
  11. The thyroid secretes____which_____
    • calcitonin
    • lowers blood clacium levels
  12. The parathyroid secretes ____which _____
    • parathyroid hormone
    • raises blood calcium levels
  13. The thymus secretes ___ and ___ which __-
    • Thyomin
    • Thymopoietin
    • helps T cells mature
  14. The pancrease secretes ___ and ____ which ____
    • insulin
    • glucagon
    • raise and lower blood glucose levels
  15. The hypothalamus secretes ___ and ___ which ____

    cause pituitary to store or secrete horomones
  16. The pituitary secretes ___which ____
    • pituitary gonadotropins
    • produce sex differences, follicle stimulating hormones, luteinizing hormones, release of egg during ovulation, sperm production, testosterone production
  17. The adrenal glands secrete____and___ and___and___which
    • adrenaline
    • androgens
    • estrogen
    • testosterone
    • raise blood glucose levels, promote fat breakdodwn, suppress inflammation, regulate levels of sodium potassium in blood, acts on liver, muscle and fat to raise blood sugar, increase heart rate, regulate blood vessel diamters and increase respiration
  18. The pineal glad secrete ___which____
    • melatonin
    • helps regulate sleep
  19. Testes produce___which____
    • testosterone
    • aids in sperm production, produce muscle mass, voice deepening
  20. The ovaries produce ____ and ____ which

    regulate menstruation, maturation of egg cells, breast development, pregnancy and menopause
  21. When does puberty typically occur for boys?
    • 9-14 13
    • 8-13 11
  22. five functions of the skeletal system
    • support for body
    • protect internal organs
    • aid in movement
    • store minerals
    • produce red blood cells
  23. What is the function of cartilage?
    protects ends of bones from degradation
  24. How many bones make up the skeleton?
  25. Axial skeleton
    supports trunk of body and consists largely of bones making up vertebral column or spine and skull
  26. Appendicular skeleton
    bones of hip, shoulder, and limbs
  27. List 3 types of joints and locations
    • ball and socket - hips and shoulders
    • hinge joint - knee, elbow
    • pivot joint - neck
  28. compact bone
    form hard outer shell of bones
  29. spongy bone
    porous, honeycomb like inner bone
  30. function of bone marrow
    helps produce blood cells
  31. osteoblast and function
    help bone tissue regenerate itself by process called bone deposition
  32. osteoclast and function
    involved in breaking down or reabsorbin bone tissue
  33. Four functions of calcium
    • blood clot
    • muscle contractions
    • product of nerve impulses
    • activity of many enzymes
  34. women have longer torsos or lower center of gravity than men
  35. What six bones different between men and women
    • mandible
    • temporal bones
    • frontal bones (2)
    • ossa cossae (2)
  36. Define Q angle and why it is important
    angle formed between kneecap, femur, and line of tendon from kneecap to shin bone
  37. Three muscle types
    • smooth
    • skeletal
    • cardiac
  38. Define antagonistic muscle pairs and give examples
    • each muscle is paired with a muscle of the opposite effect
    • bicep and tricep
  39. List 3 differences between slow and fast twitch muscles
  40. a muscle fiber is a muscle cell
  41. myofibril
    parallel array of thread-like filaments that give skeletal muscle striped appearance
  42. sarcomere
    unit of contraction of a muscle fiber
  43. a sarcomere is composed of what 2 filaments?
    • actin
    • myosin
  44. what is a Z disc?
    two dark lines in the myofibril
  45. describe a muscle contraction
    the sarcomere of a myofibril consists of actin molecules attached to z disc and myosin molecules - using energy from ATP, the myosin heads bind to actin and pulls it toward the center. Since this happens at both ends of the sarcomere it shortens, allowing contraction of muscle cell and movement of muscle.
  46. Puberty increases the number of muscle fibers
  47. Women store fat in what areas?
    • abdomen
    • buttocks
    • hips
    • thighs
    • torso
  48. Men store fat in what area
  49. why do women need more body fat
    maintain fertility
  50. women have greater tolerance for endurance events than men
  51. what is the healthy body fat ranges for men
    • 3-29
    • 12-32
  52. what are the benefits of athletic competition and exercise?
    • less likely to drop out of school, drink, smoke
    • teaches teamwork, discipline, pride in accomplishments, drive, dedication
    • decreased heart disease obesity, diabetes, many cancers
    • lowered cholesterol, decrease anxiety and depression
  53. Endocrine disruptors
    disrupt actions of hormone-producing system
  54. two types of organisms that do binary fission
    ameobas, sponges
  55. budding
    asexual reproduction - cell division that produces daughter cells which remain attached to the parent cell until it grows enough to break away
  56. advantages of asexual reproduction
    • no need to find a partner
    • allows for rapid reproduction
  57. gonads
    two gametes combine genetic information
  58. zygote
    formation of 2 haploid gametes
  59. What pesticide is under study to see if it causes reproductive deformities?
  60. advantages of large gametes?
    small gametes?
    • more stable
    • more mobile
  61. male reproductive system?
    • penis
    • seminol vesicle
    • prostate
    • testis
    • scrotum
    • bulbourethal glands
    • epididymous
    • vas deferens
    • urethra
    • siminiferous tubules
    • rectum
    • pubic bone
    • erectile tissue
    • glans penis
  62. female reproductive system
    • ovary
    • oviduct
    • uterus
    • endometrium
    • urethra
    • clitoris
    • vulva
    • urinary opening
    • vaginal opening
    • rectum
    • vagina
    • cervix
  63. Where does sperm come from?
  64. What are the sperm carrying ducts?
    vas deferens
  65. Why is the seminal vesicles important?
    They give energy to sperm
  66. What is the prostate glands' function?
    Give nutrients to sperm
  67. semen
    sperm combined with other secretions
  68. male gonads
    female gonads
    • testicles
    • ovaries
  69. endometrium
    internal suface of the uterine wall
  70. cervix
    lower third of uterus
  71. oviducts
    top of uterus(fallopian tubes)
  72. Gametogenesis
    productioon of sex cells
  73. STDs
    • chlamydia
    • gonorhea
    • pid
    • syphillis
    • aids
    • genital warts
    • hepititis B
    • herpes simplex
    • pubic lice
    • trichomoniasis
    • yeast
  74. gametes contain ___chromosomes
  75. stertoli cells
    cells that aid the developing sperm and are located in the seminiferous tubules
  76. 3 pieces of sperm cell
    head, midpiece, tail
  77. follicles
    structure in an ovary that containes developing ovum and secretes estrogen
  78. polar bodies
    small structures not involved in fertilization
  79. corpus luteum
    remnant of graafian follicle, minus oocyte, secretes reproductive hormones
  80. how long does it take for an unfertilized egg to move to the uterus?
    3 days
  81. 90% of male infertility are due to
    sperm production and formation
  82. what role do hormones play in menstrual cycle?
    trigger release of egg, aid in development of egg
  83. What triggers the uterine wall lining to shed?
    progesteron and estrogen levels fall, triggering uterus to spasm
  84. how many sperm reach the egg in the oviduct?
  85. Follicle cell
    sorrounds and nourishes egg
  86. zona pellucida
    transluscent covering on an egg
  87. embryo
    first divison of zygote until body structures begin to appear
  88. fetus
    after the 9th week of pregnancy
  89. 3 layers of gastrulation
    • outer - ectoderm - skin, sensory organs
    • middle- mesoderm - skeletal, circulatory, muscles, excretory,
    • inner - endoderm - respiratory, digestive
  90. cryptorchidism
    undescended testes
  91. trophoblast
    outer ring of cells that becomes the placenta
  92. what is exchanged between mother and fetus?
    nutrients and waste
  93. prolactin
    hormone that stimulates mammary glands
  94. three environmental chemicals that pregnant woment should avoid
    mercury, 2nd hand smoke, alcohol
  95. amnion
    fluid filled sac that surrounds fetus
  96. 3 stages of labor
    • cervix enlarges
    • delivery of baby
    • delivery of placenta
Card Set
Human Biology Ch 16 & 17
Human Biology Ch 16 & 17
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