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internal system of regulation of communication involving hormones, glands that secrete them, an dparticular cells that respond to the hormones.
cells that respond to a particular hormone
chemicals that travel through the circulatory system and act as signals to elicit a response from target cells
what are the 2 ways hormones elicit a response?
- bind to receptors on target cells surface and trigger change inside a cell
- hormones diffuse across cell membrane to bind receptors inside the cell to trigger the response
fat soluable hormones that can cross cell membranes and bind to receptors inside the target cell causing cells to turn specific genes on or off
What happens when a hormone binds to a receptor?
causes cells to turn specific genes on or off
what is a female hormone?
What is the male hormone?
groups of cells or organs that secrete hormones
kidneys produce ___ which function to ____
- stimulate production of red blood cells
digestive tract produces ____ which_____
- stimulates stomach to release hydrochloric acid during digestion
The thyroid secretes____which_____
- lowers blood clacium levels
The parathyroid secretes ____which _____
- parathyroid hormone
- raises blood calcium levels
The thymus secretes ___ and ___ which __-
- helps T cells mature
The pancrease secretes ___ and ____ which ____
- raise and lower blood glucose levels
The hypothalamus secretes ___ and ___ which ____
cause pituitary to store or secrete horomones
The pituitary secretes ___which ____
- pituitary gonadotropins
- produce sex differences, follicle stimulating hormones, luteinizing hormones, release of egg during ovulation, sperm production, testosterone production
The adrenal glands secrete____and___ and___and___which
- raise blood glucose levels, promote fat breakdodwn, suppress inflammation, regulate levels of sodium potassium in blood, acts on liver, muscle and fat to raise blood sugar, increase heart rate, regulate blood vessel diamters and increase respiration
The pineal glad secrete ___which____
- helps regulate sleep
- aids in sperm production, produce muscle mass, voice deepening
The ovaries produce ____ and ____ which
regulate menstruation, maturation of egg cells, breast development, pregnancy and menopause
When does puberty typically occur for boys?
five functions of the skeletal system
- support for body
- protect internal organs
- aid in movement
- store minerals
- produce red blood cells
What is the function of cartilage?
protects ends of bones from degradation
How many bones make up the skeleton?
supports trunk of body and consists largely of bones making up vertebral column or spine and skull
bones of hip, shoulder, and limbs
List 3 types of joints and locations
- ball and socket - hips and shoulders
- hinge joint - knee, elbow
- pivot joint - neck
form hard outer shell of bones
porous, honeycomb like inner bone
function of bone marrow
helps produce blood cells
osteoblast and function
help bone tissue regenerate itself by process called bone deposition
osteoclast and function
involved in breaking down or reabsorbin bone tissue
Four functions of calcium
- blood clot
- muscle contractions
- product of nerve impulses
- activity of many enzymes
women have longer torsos or lower center of gravity than men
What six bones different between men and women
- temporal bones
- frontal bones (2)
- ossa cossae (2)
Define Q angle and why it is important
angle formed between kneecap, femur, and line of tendon from kneecap to shin bone
Define antagonistic muscle pairs and give examples
- each muscle is paired with a muscle of the opposite effect
- bicep and tricep
List 3 differences between slow and fast twitch muscles
a muscle fiber is a muscle cell
parallel array of thread-like filaments that give skeletal muscle striped appearance
unit of contraction of a muscle fiber
a sarcomere is composed of what 2 filaments?
what is a Z disc?
two dark lines in the myofibril
describe a muscle contraction
the sarcomere of a myofibril consists of actin molecules attached to z disc and myosin molecules - using energy from ATP, the myosin heads bind to actin and pulls it toward the center. Since this happens at both ends of the sarcomere it shortens, allowing contraction of muscle cell and movement of muscle.
Puberty increases the number of muscle fibers
Women store fat in what areas?
Men store fat in what area
why do women need more body fat
women have greater tolerance for endurance events than men
what is the healthy body fat ranges for men
what are the benefits of athletic competition and exercise?
- less likely to drop out of school, drink, smoke
- teaches teamwork, discipline, pride in accomplishments, drive, dedication
- decreased heart disease obesity, diabetes, many cancers
- lowered cholesterol, decrease anxiety and depression
disrupt actions of hormone-producing system
two types of organisms that do binary fission
asexual reproduction - cell division that produces daughter cells which remain attached to the parent cell until it grows enough to break away
advantages of asexual reproduction
- no need to find a partner
- allows for rapid reproduction
two gametes combine genetic information
formation of 2 haploid gametes
What pesticide is under study to see if it causes reproductive deformities?
advantages of large gametes?
male reproductive system?
- seminol vesicle
- bulbourethal glands
- vas deferens
- siminiferous tubules
- pubic bone
- erectile tissue
- glans penis
female reproductive system
- urinary opening
- vaginal opening
Where does sperm come from?
What are the sperm carrying ducts?
Why is the seminal vesicles important?
They give energy to sperm
What is the prostate glands' function?
Give nutrients to sperm
sperm combined with other secretions
internal suface of the uterine wall
lower third of uterus
top of uterus(fallopian tubes)
productioon of sex cells
- genital warts
- hepititis B
- herpes simplex
- pubic lice
gametes contain ___chromosomes
cells that aid the developing sperm and are located in the seminiferous tubules
3 pieces of sperm cell
head, midpiece, tail
structure in an ovary that containes developing ovum and secretes estrogen
small structures not involved in fertilization
remnant of graafian follicle, minus oocyte, secretes reproductive hormones
how long does it take for an unfertilized egg to move to the uterus?
90% of male infertility are due to
sperm production and formation
what role do hormones play in menstrual cycle?
trigger release of egg, aid in development of egg
What triggers the uterine wall lining to shed?
progesteron and estrogen levels fall, triggering uterus to spasm
how many sperm reach the egg in the oviduct?
sorrounds and nourishes egg
transluscent covering on an egg
first divison of zygote until body structures begin to appear
after the 9th week of pregnancy
3 layers of gastrulation
- outer - ectoderm - skin, sensory organs
- middle- mesoderm - skeletal, circulatory, muscles, excretory,
- inner - endoderm - respiratory, digestive
outer ring of cells that becomes the placenta
what is exchanged between mother and fetus?
nutrients and waste
hormone that stimulates mammary glands
three environmental chemicals that pregnant woment should avoid
mercury, 2nd hand smoke, alcohol
fluid filled sac that surrounds fetus
3 stages of labor
- cervix enlarges
- delivery of baby
- delivery of placenta