Anatomy

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Author:
alannaheeres
ID:
106807
Filename:
Anatomy
Updated:
2011-10-05 23:27:39
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Muscular Tissue
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Muscular Tissue
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  1. Alternating contraction and relaxation of cell
    Chemical energy changed into mechanical energ
    Muscular Tissue
  2. Attaches to bone, skin or fascia
    Striated (light & dark bands visible with scope)
    Voluntary control of contraction & relaxation
    Skeletal Muscle
  3. Striated in appearance
    Involuntary control
    Autorhythmic because of built in pacemaker
    Cardiac muscle
  4. Anatomy:
    Striated, branching fibers
    Single centrally located nucleus
    Cardiac Muscle
  5. Anatomy:
    Cells connected by intercalated discs with gap junctions
    Same arrangement of thick & thin filaments as skeletal
    Cardiac Muscle
  6. What are the 3 types of muscle tissue?
    • 1. Skeletal Muscle
    • 2. Cardiac Muscle
    • 3. Smooth Muscle
  7. Attached to hair follicles in skin
    In walls of hollow organs -- blood vessels & GI
    Smooth muscle
  8. Nonstriated in appearance (looks smooth)
    Involuntary
    Smooth muscle
  9. Smooth muscle: Thick & thin myofilaments not orderly arranged so lacks __________.
    sarcomeres
  10. Sliding of thick & thin filaments generates _________
    tension
  11. Transferred to intermediate filaments & dense bodies attached to sarcolemm
    Smooth muscle
  12. Muscle fiber contracts and twists into a ______ as it shortens -- relaxes by untwisting
    helix
  13. When do skeletal muscles stop dividing?
    After 1st year
  14. Growth is enlargement of existing cells
    Skeletal muscle fibers
  15. Satellite cells & bone marrow produce some new cells
    If not enough numbers---fibrosis occurs most often
    Repair of skeletal muscle
  16. All healing is done by fibrosis (scar formation)
    • Cardiac muscle fibers
    • (cannot divide or regenerate)
  17. Cells can grow in size (hypertrophy)
    Some cells (uterus) can divide (hyperplasia)
    New fibers can form from stem cells in BV walls
    • Smooth muscle fibers
    • (regeneration is possible)
  18. What are the functions of Muscle Tissue? (4)
    • 1. Producing body movements
    • 2. Producing heat
    • -normal muscle activity and involuntary contractions of skeletal muscle (shivering) contribute to normal body temperature
    • 3. Movement and storage of substances within the body
    • – blood, lymph, urine, air, food and fluids, sperm
    • 4. Maintenance of body position
    • -stabilizing joints and tonic contraction of postural muscles

    (PPMM)
  19. Properties of Muscle Tissue:
    Respond to chemicals released from nerve cells
    Excitability
  20. Properties of Muscle Tissue:
    Ability to shorten and generate force
    Contractility
  21. Properties of Muscle Tissue:
    Ability to be stretched without damaging the tissue
    Extensibility
  22. Properties of Muscle Tissue:
    Ability to return to original shape after being stretched
    Elasticity
  23. What is the Superficial Fascia of Skeletal Muscle composed of?
    Loose connective tissue & fat underlying the skin
  24. Dense irregular connective tissue around muscle
    Deep fascia
  25. Connective tissue components of the muscle include:
    • 1. Epimysium
    • 2. Perimysium
    • 3. Endomysium
  26. Surrounds the whole muscle
    Epimysium
  27. Surrounds bundles (fascicles) of 10-100 muscle cells
    Perimysium
  28. Separates individual muscle cells
    Endomysium
  29. Long, cylindrical & multinucleated
    Muscle cells
  30. Muscle cell membrane
    Sarcolemma
  31. What is the sarcoplasm filled with?
    Tiny threads called myofibrils & myoglobin
  32. Red-colored, oxygen-binding protein
    Myoglobin
  33. Muscle fibers are filled with threads called _______
    myofibrils
  34. What are myofibrils separated by?
    SR (Sarcoplasmic reticulum)
  35. The contractile proteins of muscle
    Myofilaments (thick & thin filaments)
  36. SR: System of tubular sacs similar to _________ _____ in nonmuscle cells
    Smooth ER
  37. Stores Ca+2 in a relaxed muscl
    Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (SR)
  38. Triggers muscle contraction in SR
    Release of Ca+2
  39. Invaginations of the sarcolemma into the center of the cell
    T (transverse) tubules
  40. Filled with extracellular fluid
    Carry muscle action potentials down into cell
    T (transverse) tubules
  41. Where do you find mitochondria in muscle cells?
    • In rows throughout the cell
    • Near the muscle proteins that use ATP during contraction
  42. Every mature muscle cell developed from ______ myoblasts that fuse together in the _____. (multinucleated)
    100; fetus
  43. Can mature muscle cells divide?
    No
  44. What is muscle growth the result of?
    Cellular enlargement and non cell division
  45. Retain the ability to regenerate new cells
    Satellite cells
  46. Thick filament
    Myosin
  47. Thin filaments
    Actin
  48. How are striations created?
    Thick (myosin) and thin (actin) filaments overlap each other in a pattern
  49. Filaments are arranged in compartments called _______
    Sarcomeres
  50. Sacromeres are separated by _______
    Z discs
  51. Myosin cross bridges pull thin actin filaments toward the centre of the sarcomere resulting in __________________________
    shortening of muscle fiber
  52. This event requires release of calcium ions from the SR into the cytosol and energy (ATP) from the mitochondria
    Myosin cross bridges pull thin actin filaments toward the centre of the sarcomere
  53. Sliding Filament Mechanism of Contraction:
    • 1. Myosin cross bridgespull on thin filaments
    • 2. Thin filaments slide inward
    • 3. Z Discs come toward each other
    • 4. Sarcomeres shorten.The muscle fiber shortens. The muscle shortens
  54. Do thick and thin filaments change in length during contraction?
    No
  55. What nerve is supplied by a nerve, artery and veins
    Skeletal muscle
  56. What does each motor neuron supply?
    muscle cells
  57. Where are nerve fibers and capillaries found?
    In the endomysium between individual cells
  58. Swellings of axon terminals
    Synaptic end bulbs
  59. Contain synaptic vesicles filled with acetylcholine (ACh)
    End bulbs
  60. Contains 30 million ACh receptors.
    Motor end plate membrane
  61. Variations in Skeletal Muscle FIbers (3)
    • 1. Myoglobin, mitochondria and capillaries
    • 2. Contraction and relaxation speeds vary
    • 3. Resistance to fatigu
  62. More myoglobin, an oxygen-storing reddish pigment
    More capillaries and mitochondria
    Red muscle fibers
  63. Less myoglobin and less capillaries give fibers their pale color
    White muscle fibers
  64. How do contraction and relaxation speeds vary?
    How fast myosin ATPase hydrolyzes ATP
  65. How is there variance in skeletal muscle fibers in terms of resistance to fatigue?
    Different metabolic reactions used to generate ATP
  66. Red in color (lots of mitochondria, myoglobin & blood vessels)
    Small muscle fibers and least powerful muscle type
    Prolonged, sustained contractions for maintaining posture
    Use ATP at a slow rat
    Red Slow Twitch
  67. White in color (few mitochondria & BV, low myoglobin)
    Large muscle fibers, most powerful contractions
    Contractions last for short duration; used for weight-lifting
    Split ATP fast but fatigue quickly
    White Fast Twitch
  68. Muscle fibers are intermediate in thickness:gives strength of contraction
    Red in color and contain moderate amounts of myoglobin & blood vessels
    Both good source of energy and ability to split ATP at a fast rate; used for walking and sprinting
    Intermediate Fast Twitch
  69. wasting away of muscles
    caused by disuse (disuse atrophy) or severing of the nerve supply (denervation atrophy)
    Atrophy
  70. Increase in the diameter of muscle fibers
    Resulting from very forceful, repetitive muscular activity and an increase in myofibrils, SR & mitochondria
    Hypertrophy
  71. A state of muscular rigidity that begins 3-4 hours after death and lasts about 24 hours
    Rigor mortis
  72. After death, Ca+2 ions leak out of the SR and allow ______ heads to bind to _______
    myosin; actin
  73. Why: crossbridges cannot detach from actin until proteolytic enzymes begin to digest the decomposing cells.
    Since ATP synthesis has ceased
  74. Similar to testosterone
    Increases muscle size, strength, and endurance
    Many very serious side effects
    Anabolic Steroids
  75. What are some side effects of Anabolic Steroids?
    • 1. liver cancer
    • 2. kidney damage
    • 3. heart disease
    • 4. mood swings
    • 5. facial hair & voice deepening in females
    • 6. atrophy of testicles & baldness in males
  76. Inherited, muscle-destroying diseases
    Sarcolemma tears during muscle contraction
    Mutated gene is on X chromosome so problem is with males almost exclusively
    Muscular Dystrophies
  77. Appears by age 5 in males and by 12 may be unable to walk
    Degeneration of individual muscle fibers produces atrophy of the skeletal muscle
    Muscular Dystrophies
  78. Gene therapy is hoped for with the most common form = Duchenne muscular dystrophy
    Muscular Dystrophies

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