an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing univeral principles
hard to generalize
observation based and not experiment based; can't prove anyting concrete
Survey
a technique for accertianing se;f-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them.
must be completely random
questions must be clear
diction also plays a role: welfare vs. helping the needy
False Consensus Effect
the tendancy to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors.
Population
All cases of a group, from which samples may be taken for study
Random Sample
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
this way it's most likely to get a "normal" set of the population in the mix
the larger the better
make sure you don't end up getting all similar types of people
Naturalistic observations
observing and recording behavior in naturally occuring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
doesn't explain behavior, it just describes it
Correlation Coefficient
a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus how well either factor predicts one another
the mathematical expression of the relationship, ranging from -1 to +1
Scatterplot
a graphed cluster of dots each of which represents the value of two variables the slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the variables.
the amount of scatter suggests the strength of the corelation
Illusionary corelations
the perception of a relationship where none exists.
when we believe there is a relationship btw 2 things, we are more likely to recall or notice more and more instances that support our belief.
Experiment
a research method in which the investigator manipulates one or more factors(IV) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process(DV).
ramndom assignment tries to eliminate any untested factors
1)manipulates factors of interest
2)holds controlls other factors
Double-Blind Proceedure
an experiment in which neither the participant or the tester knows who has the treatment or the placebo so as not to bias the results or observations
Placebo Effect
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent.
Experimental condition
the condition of an experiment that exposes participants ot the treatment, that is, to one version of the independant variable.
the group in the double-blind that is actually treated
Control Condition
the condition of an experiment that serves as a comparison to the experimental condition for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
people getting placebos instread of the actual treatment
Random Assignment
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences btw those assigned to different groups
Independant Variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated' the variable whose effect is being studied
age, weight, personality
Dependant Variable
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independant variable.
Mode
the most frquently appearing score(s) in a set of data
Mean
the average
Median
the middle score
Range
the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
most affected by extreme scores
Standard deviation
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
Statistical Significance
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance.