AP Psych

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AP Psych
2011-10-11 19:42:26
Research Studies

Research Studies
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  1. Case study
    • an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing univeral principles
    • hard to generalize
    • observation based and not experiment based; can't prove anyting concrete
  2. Survey
    • a technique for accertianing se;f-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them.
    • must be completely random
    • questions must be clear
    • diction also plays a role: welfare vs. helping the needy
  3. False Consensus Effect
    the tendancy to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors.
  4. Population
    All cases of a group, from which samples may be taken for study
  5. Random Sample
    • a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
    • this way it's most likely to get a "normal" set of the population in the mix
    • the larger the better
    • make sure you don't end up getting all similar types of people
  6. Naturalistic observations
    • observing and recording behavior in naturally occuring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
    • doesn't explain behavior, it just describes it
  7. Correlation Coefficient
    • a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus how well either factor predicts one another
    • the mathematical expression of the relationship, ranging from -1 to +1
  8. Scatterplot
    • a graphed cluster of dots each of which represents the value of two variables the slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the variables.
    • the amount of scatter suggests the strength of the corelation
  9. Illusionary corelations
    • the perception of a relationship where none exists.
    • when we believe there is a relationship btw 2 things, we are more likely to recall or notice more and more instances that support our belief.
  10. Experiment
    • a research method in which the investigator manipulates one or more factors(IV) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process(DV).
    • ramndom assignment tries to eliminate any untested factors
    • 1)manipulates factors of interest
    • 2)holds controlls other factors
  11. Double-Blind Proceedure
    an experiment in which neither the participant or the tester knows who has the treatment or the placebo so as not to bias the results or observations
  12. Placebo Effect
    experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent.
  13. Experimental condition
    • the condition of an experiment that exposes participants ot the treatment, that is, to one version of the independant variable.
    • the group in the double-blind that is actually treated
  14. Control Condition
    • the condition of an experiment that serves as a comparison to the experimental condition for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
    • people getting placebos instread of the actual treatment
  15. Random Assignment
    assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences btw those assigned to different groups
  16. Independant Variable
    • the experimental factor that is manipulated' the variable whose effect is being studied
    • age, weight, personality
  17. Dependant Variable
    the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independant variable.
  18. Mode
    the most frquently appearing score(s) in a set of data
  19. Mean
    the average
  20. Median
    the middle score
  21. Range
    • the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
    • most affected by extreme scores
  22. Standard deviation
    a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
  23. Statistical Significance
    a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance.