Medterms6

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Medterms6
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  1. What does the musculoskeletal system provide?
    • protection
    • support
    • movement for the body
  2. function of bones
    • formation of blood cells
    • storage of fat in bone marrow
    • storage and release of minerals (Ca2+)
  3. hemat/o
    blood
  4. -poiesis
    production
  5. muscul/o
    muscle
  6. musculoskeletal
    pertaining to the muscles and skeleton
  7. orthopedics
    • branch of medicine involved in prevention and correction of deformities or diseases of musculoskeletal system
    • esp. bones, muscles, joints, ligaments, and tendons
  8. articul/o
    joint
  9. adult human skeleton consists of __ # of bones
    206
  10. bones forming vertical axis of body
    • skull
    • spinal column
    • breastbone
    • ribs
  11. carp/o
    carpus (wrist bones)
  12. meta
    change or next in a series
  13. tars/o
    tarus (ankle bone)
  14. vertebr/o
    vertebra
  15. vertical axis of body
    clavicle
    • clavicul/o
    • collarbone
  16. vertical axis of body
    cranium
    • crani/o
    • skull
  17. vertical axis of body
    costa
    • cost/o
    • rib
  18. vertical axis of body
    scapula
    • scapul/o
    • shoulder blade
  19. vertical axis of body
    sternum
    • stern/o
    • breastbone
  20. vertical axis of body
    spine
    • rachi/o, spin/o
    • backbone
  21. vertical axis of body
    cervical (vertebrae)
    • cervic/o
    • spinal bones
  22. vertical axis of body
    throacic (vertebrae)
    • thorac/o
    • spinal bones
  23. vertical axis of body
    lumbar (vertebrae)
    • lumb/o
    • spinal bones
  24. vertical axis of body
    sacrum (sacral vertebrae)
    • sacr/o
    • spinal bones
  25. vertical axis of body
    coccyx (coccygeal vertebrae)
    • coccyg/o
    • spinal bones
  26. humer/o
    • humerus
    • upper arm bone
  27. radi/o
    • radius
    • bones of forearm
  28. uln/o
    • ulna
    • bones of forearm
  29. carp/o
    • carpals
    • write bones
  30. metacarp/o
    • matacarpals
    • bones of the hands
  31. phalang/o
    • phalanges
    • bones of the fingers
  32. pelv/i
    pelvis
  33. ili/o
    • ilium
    • pelvic bones
  34. ischi/o
    • ischium
    • pelvic bones
  35. pub/o
    • pubis
    • pelvis bones
  36. femor/o
    • femur
    • thigh bone
  37. patell/o
    • patella
    • kneecap
  38. fibul/o
    • fibula
    • bones of lower leg
  39. tibi/o
    • tibia
    • bones of lower leg
  40. tars/o
    • tarsals
    • ankle bones
  41. calcane/o
    • calcaneus
    • heel bone
  42. metatars/o
    • metatarsals
    • bones of feet
  43. phalang/o
    • phalanges
    • bones of toes
  44. rachiodynia; rachialgia
    painful spine
  45. intervertebral
    two adjoining vertebrae
  46. cervical vertebrae
    C1-C7
  47. thoracic vertebrae
    T1-T12
  48. lumbago
    dull, aching pain in lower back
  49. lumbar vertebrae
    L1-L5
  50. sacrum
    fusion of five sacral bones
  51. intercostal
    between ribs
  52. sternocostal
    sternum and ribs
  53. true ribs
    1-7
  54. false ribs
    8-10
  55. bones of upper extremity
    • arm
    • forearm
    • hand
  56. bones of forearm
    • ulna
    • radius
  57. bone of upper arm
    humerus
  58. bones of lower extremity
    • bones of thigh
    • leg
    • foot
    • patella
  59. bones of lower leg
    • tibia
    • fibula
  60. bones of the foot
    • ankle
    • instep
    • 5 toes
  61. bones of ankle
    • 7
    • calcaneus (heel bone) is longest
  62. bones of instep
    5 metatarsals
  63. toes
    • 3 phalanges
    • except big toe = 2
  64. osteomalacia
    decalcification without replacement of lost calcium
  65. myelitis
    inflammation of either spinal cord or bone marrow
  66. myelofibrosis
    replacement of bone marrow by fibrous tissue
  67. myeloencephalitis
    inflammation of brain and spinal cord
  68. ankyl/o
    stiff
  69. arthr/o
    • articulation
    • joint
  70. -asthenia
    weakness
  71. burs/o
    bursa
  72. calci/o
    calcium
  73. cellul/o
    little cell or compartment
  74. chondr/o
    cartilage
  75. de-
    • down
    • from
    • reversing
  76. meta-
    change or next in a series
  77. -sarcoma
    malignant tumor of connective tissue
  78. ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o
    tendon
  79. types of muscles
    • skeletal
    • visceral
    • cardiac
  80. voluntary/skeletal muscle
    • attached to bone
    • controlled by conscious part of brain to produce movement
    • striations, alternate light/dark bands
  81. visceral muscle
    • located in walls of hollow internal structures
    • involuntary
    • lacks striations
    • aka smooth muscle
  82. cardiac muscle
    • involuntary
    • striated
  83. abdomin/o
    abdomen
  84. bi-
    two
  85. brachi/o
    arm
  86. pector/o
    chest
  87. fibromyalgia
    widespread non-articular pain of torso, extremities & face
  88. myofibrosis
    tissue replaced by fibrous tissue
  89. myasthenia gravis
    • fatigue
    • muscle weakness
    • from defect in conduction of nerve impulses
  90. -plegia
    paralysis
  91. herniated disk
    • when disks btwn vertebrae become diseased
    • --> becomes ruptured
    • can press on spinal cord or on spinal nerve
    • causes pain
  92. paraplegia
    paralysis of lower portion of body and of both legs
  93. quadriplegia or tetraplegia
    paralysis of the arms and legs
  94. paresis
    slight or incomplete paralysis
  95. paraparesis
    slight or partial paralysis
  96. quadriparesis or tetra paresis
    affects all four extremities
  97. dislocation
    displacement of a bone from a joint
  98. fracture
    • breaking of a bone
    • usually from sudden injury
  99. types of fractures
    • complete, simple (closed)
    • compound (open)
    • incomplete, simple (closed)
  100. common dislocation areas
    • synovial joints
    • more common in shoulder, hip, knee, fingers
  101. sprain
    injury to joint that causes pain and disability
  102. strain
    • excessive use of a part of the body to extent that its injured
    • trauma to a muscle caused by violent contraction or excessive forcible stretch
  103. myocele
    aka fascial hernia
    • condition
    • muscle protrudes through its fascial covering
  104. osteomyelitis
    • infection of bone and bone marrow
    • caused by infectious microorganisms
  105. osteochondritis
    • inflammation of bone and cartilage
    • tends to attack bone-forming centers of skeleton
  106. sarcomas
    • cancers that arise from connective tissue (muscle or bone)
    • malignant
  107. chondrosarcoma
    masses of cartilage
  108. fibrosarcoma
    malignant tumor containing much fibrous tissue
  109. leukemias
    • chronic or acute of blood-forming tissues
    • unrestrained growth of leukocytes & their precursors
  110. mutliple myeloma
    • disease characterized by the presence of many tumor masses in bone and bone marrow
    • progressive & generally fatal
  111. osteoporosis
    • metabolic disease
    • reduced bone mass leads to subsequent fracture
    • affects postmenopausal women
    • pts receiving long-term steroid tx
  112. osteomalacia
    • reversible skeletal disorder
    • defect in mineralization of bone
    • deficiency of vitamin D
  113. spondylomalacia
    softening of vertebrae
  114. osteitis deformans
    aka Paget disease
    • sk. disease of elderly persons
    • chronic bone inflammation
    • thickening & softening of bones & in bowing of long bones
  115. porosis
    thinning of bone
  116. congenital defects
    spina bifida
    • congenital abnormality
    • defective closure of bones of spine
  117. congenital defects
    scoliosis
    • lateral curvature of spine
    • can be caused by hip disease
  118. congenital defects
    kyphosis
    aka humpback/hunchback
    • exaggerated curvature of spine
    • front front to back
  119. congenital defects
    muscular dystrophy
    • grp of inherited diseases
    • weakness, atrophy of muscle w/out involvemt of nervous sys
    • progressive disability
    • loss of strength
  120. congenital defects
    craniocele
    hernial protrusion of brain thru defect in skull
  121. congenital defects
    tarsoptosis
    • aka flatfoot
    • inherited condition
    • flattening out of arch of foot
  122. arthritis & conn. tissue disease
    arthritis
    • inflam. condtn of joints
    • pain, heat, swelling, redness
    • limitation of movemt
  123. arthritis & conn. tissue disease
    osteoarthritis
    • aka degernative joint disease (DJD)
    • one or many joints undergo degen. changes
    • loss of articular cartilage
    • involve bones & joints
    • esp joints that bear wt
    • can cause loss of spinal flex
  124. arthritis & conn. tissue disease
    rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
    • 2nd most common conn.tissue disease
    • chronic, systemic
    • results: joint deformities (hands & feet)
  125. arthritis & conn. tissue disease
    rheumatism
    • acute and chronic conditns
    • inflammation, soreness & stiffness of muscles
    • pain in joints & ass. structures
  126. spondylarthritis
    • inflam of vertebra
    • arthritis of spine
  127. rheumatoid spondylitis
    • inflam of cartilage btwn vertebrae
    • can cause neighboring vertebrae to fuse
    • spine can become stiffened (anklyosed spine)
  128. polyarthritis
    inflam of more than one joint
  129. arthralgia; arthrodynia
    painful joint
  130. bursitis
    inflam of bursa
  131. ankylosis
    abnormal condtn- joint immobile & stiff
  132. lupus erythematosus (LE)
    • autoimmune disease
    • involves conn. tissue
    • butterfly rash across bridge of nose
  133. gout
    • painful metabolic disease
    • form of acute arthritis
    • inflam of joints (foot or knee)
    • hereditary
    • from hyperuricemia & deposits of urats in & around joints
  134. arthroscopy
    direct visualiztion of interior of joint using special fiberoptic endoscope (arthroscope)
  135. arthropathy
    any disease of a joint
  136. reduction
    restoring fractures to normal positions by pulling broken frags into alignmt
  137. traction
    • use of a pulling force to a part of body to produce alignmt & rest while decreasing muscle spasm
    • and correcting/preventing deformity
  138. closed reduction
    fracture restored to normal position by manipulation w/out surgery
  139. open reduction
    fracture exposed to surgery before broken ends can be aligned
  140. vertebroplasty
    • repairing vertebral fracture
    • cement-like substance injected into body of fractured vertebra
    • stabilize & strengthens
    • immediately removes pain
  141. laminectomy
    • surgical removal of bony posterior arch of vertebra
    • permit surgical access to disk so herniated material can be removed
  142. diskectomy
    complete excision of intervertebral disk
  143. spinal puncture
    aka spinal tap / lumbar puncture
    • puncture of spinal cavity with needle
    • extract spinal fluid
    • or introduce agents into spinal canal for anesthesia/radiographic studies
  144. bunionectomy
    excision of a bunion
  145. antiinflammatories
    • reduce inflam and pain
    • NSAIDS
    • ex: aspirin, ibuprofen
  146. cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors
    Celebrex
    • used to reduce inflam of arthritis
    • doesnt cause stomach distress & ulcers
  147. antiarthritics
    forms of tx to relieve sx of arthritis
  148. disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs)
    • slows progression of disease
    • slower acting than NSAIDs
    • can combine w/antiinflammatories
  149. arthrocentesis
    extraction of excessive fluid accumulated in synovial joint after injury
  150. arthroplasty
    surgical reconstruction or replacement of joint
  151. musculoskeletal
    pertaining to muscles & skeleton
  152. muscular system
    includes: all muscles, bones, joints & related structures
  153. skeletal system
    • includes: bones, cartilage of body
    • provide framework for muscles and organs
    • places for attachmt of tendons, ligaments & muscles
  154. orthopedics
    • branch of medicine
    • prevention & correction of deformities or disease of musculoskeletal system
    • bones, muscles, joints, ligaments, tendons
  155. articulation
    • aka joint
    • place of union btwn two or more bones
  156. synovial joints
    joints with cavities btwn articulating bones
  157. bursae
    • sacs of fluid located in areas of friction
    • esp. joints
  158. four common types of joint motions
    • extension
    • flexion
    • rotation
    • circumduction
  159. extension
    straightens a limb
  160. flexion
    bends a limb
  161. rotation
    movement of a bone around its own axis
  162. circumduction
    circular movement of a limb at the far end
  163. ligaments
    • strong bands of fibrous conn. tissue
    • connect bones or cartilage
    • support & strengthen joints
  164. fascia
    fibrous membrane that covers, supports & separates muscles
  165. tendons
    bands of strong fibrous tissue that attach the muscles to the bones

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