Test 1

Card Set Information

Test 1
2011-10-06 18:37:30

State and Local Government
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  1. Devolution
    The delegating of power and programs from the federal government down to state and local governemt
  2. Political Culture
    The attitudes values and beliefs that people hold toward government
  3. Sunbelt
    Unofficial region of the US, generally consisting of the south and west
  4. Frostbelt
    unofficial region of the US, generally consisting of the northeast and midwest. (Rustbelt)
  5. Unitary System
    all government authority is derived from one central government
  6. Confederation
    Sovereign states and limited central government....less independent powers of the central government.
  7. Federal System
    Power is divided between the central government and regional states
  8. Madisons Federalist 45
    Madisons argument that states will not be endangered by the central government, and in fact will be an advantage for the states by the proposed constitution
  9. Federalist 17
    People will relate more with their local governments than with a national governent. Will be easier for the states to encroach upon national government, than the national government to encroach upon state governments
  10. Enumerated Powers
    Powers given to the government listed in the constitution.
  11. Implied Powers
    Powers not directly granted to the government in the constitution, but rather inferred from enumerated powers
  12. Reserved Powers
    Powers residing with the states by virtue of the 10th Amendment
  13. National Supremacy Clause
    Article IV of the Constitution, makes national laws superior to state laws
  14. Necessary and Proper Clause
    Portion of Constitution that grants congress power to enact all laws necessary and proper to carry out responsibilities
  15. Commerce Clause
    gives congress power to regulate trade with foreign countries and among states
  16. 14th Amendment
    Citizenship rights, due process, and equal protection that states must apply to all citizens
  17. Federal Pre-emption
    Principle that national laws take precedence over state laws
  18. Grants in aid
    transferring of funds from the national government to state governments
  19. Categorical grant
    grant used for a narrowly defined purpose
  20. Formula Grant
    makes funding available automatically. for reasons such as poverty level, unemployment...etc
  21. Block Grant
    broad based grant....can be used anywhere such as healthcare or transportation
  22. Federal Mandate
    where states must take action in a certain functional area but the federal government does not foot the bill or only foots part of the bill
  23. McCulloch v. Maryland
    Granted Implied powers to the national government. When the state of Maryland tried to tax a natiional bank that was in Maryland.
  24. Model State Constitution
    An ideal structure of a state constitution whichh emphasizes brevity and function of responsibility of government. Developed by the National Municiple League.
  25. Methods for Constitutional change
    Informal Method: Interpretation, Judicial Review

    Formal: Ratification, Legislative Proposal, direct initiative, and indirect initiative
  26. Forms that Participation might take
    Active or Passive
  27. Open v. Closed Primaries
    Open Primary : voters decide which primary they will participate in

    Closed Primary: Only voters registered in the party are allowed to participate
  28. General Elections
    Election in which the winner becomes an office holder
  29. Motor / voter Law
    A law enacted that makes it easier to register to vote by allowing people who register for a drivers licence can also register to vote
  30. 15th Amendment
    Prohibits government from denying citizens the right to vote
  31. 19th Amendment
    Prohibits government to deny the right to vote based on sex, race, ethnicity...etc
  32. Smith v. Allwright 1944
    Outlawed white primaries
  33. Voting rights act of 1965
    Broke segregation in voting and gave federal government the right to monitor state and local electoral operations
  34. Primary Elections
    Selects party nominees to compete in general elections
  35. Blanket Primary
    voter can vote for candidates of both parties in single election
  36. Social Capital
    promotes greater civic involvement in elections
  37. Run-off election
    kind of like a tie breaker to a first election where neither candidtate received a majority vote
  38. Coattail Effect
    where a presidential candidate can affect the fortunes of state candidates of the same party
  39. Off year Elections
    State elections held during the years in which no presidential election is held
  40. e-government
    Where government is brought to citizens through means of the internet
  41. Volunteerism
    when individuals or groups donate money to a public purpose
  42. Slating groups
    Nonpartisan political organizations that endorse and promote a slate of candidates
  43. Political socialization
    study of process by which children and adolescents aquire political cognition
  44. Intruments of Direct Democracy
    Initiative, Referendum, Recall
  45. Single issue Groups
    groups that focus on one issue like the NRA.
  46. 527 Groups
    Independent organizations that are not bound by state laws on how much money they can contribute to a candidate
  47. PAC
    Political Action Committee raise and distribute campaigne funds to candidates
  48. Political Efficacy
    citizens trust and faith in government and their own beleif that the can influence goernment
  49. Paid Media
    ads created and paid for by the campaigne
  50. Free Media
    unsolicited stories covered by the media
  51. Soft Money
    unregulated funds contributed to national political parties