AP Psych

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  1. Biological Psychologists
    • a branch of psychology concerned with the links between psychology and behavior
    • behavioral neuroscientists
    • pysiologiacal psychologists
    • bio-psychologists
  2. Neuron
    • a nerve cell: the basic building block of the nervous system
    • there ate a lot of tyoes, but they have basically the same theme
  3. Dendrite
    • the brushy, branching extentions of a neuron that recieve msgs to conduct impulses towards the cell body
    • (A)
  4. Axon
    • the extentoin of a neuron, extending in branching terminal fibers, through which msgs pass to other neurons or muscles or glands
    • (B)
  5. Mylin Sheath
    • a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of neurons, enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next
    • if the sheath desintagrates, communication to the muscles is slowed and you lose muscle control
    • (C)
  6. Action Potential
    a neural impulse; a breif electrical charge that travels down an axon
  7. Threshold
    • the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural response
    • establishes an all or nothing synapse
  8. Synapse
    the junction between the axon the tip of the sending neuron and the dendirte cell body of the recieving neuron.
  9. Neurotransmitters
    • chem messages that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons.
    • when released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind receptor sites on the recieving neuron, thereby influenceing wheter that neuron will generate a neural response
  10. Acetycholine
    • a neurotransmitter that enables learning and memory and also triggers muscle contraction
    • one of the best understood neurostransmitters
  11. Endorphins
    • natural opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure
    • can be triggered through exercise
  12. Nucleus
    • the center of cell body
    • the battery basically
  13. Soma
    • Cell body/Cyton
    • where the electrical charge happens (action potential)
  14. Nods of Ranvier
    • the clefts in the Mylin sheath
    • speeds up message travel
    • (F)
  15. Axon Terminals
    • long bracelet things that send the message out of the neuron into the synapse
    • (G)
  16. Synaptic Vesicles
    • balls of neurotransmitters in the axon terminal's terminal buttons
    • (H)
  17. Receptor site
    • inside dendrites that pick up specific neurotransmitters and bind like a lock and key
    • (I)
  18. Synaptic Gap/Cleft
    • the area btw the axons and dendrites where the chemical reactions happen
    • (J)
  19. Axon Terminal Buttons
    • the bulb-like things at the inside of the axon terminals that contain vesicles
    • (K)
  20. Depolarization
    • destressed
    • a regrouping of a neuron so it is ready to fire again
  21. Hyperpolarization
    less likely to fire
  22. Refractory period
    the resting period after the neuron fires for recouperation
  23. Sodium-Potassium Pumps
    sodium is pumped in while potassium is pumped out during action potential
  24. Serotonin
    • responsible for mood control
    • effects sleep
  25. Dopamine
    • pain killer--blocks pain messages to the brain
    • tied to movement and muscle control
    • lack of it gives you Parkinson's
    • too much gives you schizophrenia
  26. Norepinephrine
    • Alertness
    • triggers nervous system (fight/flight)
  27. Gamma Aminebutyric (GABA)
    makes inhibitory neurons fire (or block messages)
  28. Glutamate
    • makes exitedtory neurons fire
    • (opposite of GABA)
  29. Agonists
    • drugs that excite
    • stimulants
    • makeshift lock and key
  30. Antagonists
    • drugs that block an inhibitory action
    • morphine
Card Set
AP Psych
Neural systems/parts of neurons
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