Card Set Information
a pure substance that consists entirely of one type of atom
atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons they contain
why do all isotopes of an element have the same chemical properties?
they have the same number of electrons
__________ have unstable nuclei and break down at a constant rate over time
a substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions
what are the main types of chemical bonds?
ionic and covalent bonds
_____ bond is formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
atom that has a positive or negative charge
_____ bond is formed when electrons are shared between atoms
the smallest unit of most compounds
intermolecular forces of attraction
van der Waals forces
why ia a water molecule polar?
there is an uneven distribution of electrons between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms
an attraction between molecules of the same substance
an attraction between molecules of different substances
mixture of two or more substances in which the molecules of the substances are evenly distributed
substance that is dissolved in a solvent to make a solution
mixture of water and nondissolved materials
compound that forms hydrogen ions (H+) in solution
compound that produces hydrogen ions (OH+) in solution
weak acid or base that can react with strong acids or bases to help prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH
the study of all compounds that contain bonds between carbon atoms
a carbon atom can bond to other carbon atoms which __________________________
gives carbon the ability to form chains (carbon-carbon)
chains of carbon atoms can close upon themselves to form ____
small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers
large compound formed from combinations of many monomers
compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms
what is carbohydrate's function
major source of energy for human body
single sugar molecule
large macromolecule formed from monosaccharides
4 groups of organic compounds found in living things
carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, proteins
how do plants and some animals use carbohydrates?
for structural purposes
what supplies immediate energy for all cel activities?
breakdown of sugars
living things store extra sugar as _____
galactose and fructose are examples of ____
aniaml starch/glycogen is an example of ______
what do animals store excess sugar in?
what do plants use to store excess sugar?
what does cellulose do for plants?
give plants much of their strength and rigidity
macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes
macromolecule containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus
monomer of nucleeic acids made up of a 5 carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and nitrogenous base
single stranded nucleic acid that contains sugar ribosome
RNA (ribonucleic acid)
nucleic acid that contains the sugar deoxyribse
macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen
what is protein's function?
grows and repairs the body; makes up enzymes
compound with an amino group on one end and a carbodyl group on the other end
process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals
element or compound that enteres into a chemical reaction
element or compound produced by chemical reaction
energy needed to get a reaction started
substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
protein that acts as a biological catalyst
reactant of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction
what is lipids' functions?
store energy; important parts of biological membranes and waterproof coverings
-control the rate of reactions
-regulate cell processes
-used to form bones & muscles
-transport substances into or out of cells
-helps fight diseases
what always involves changes in the chemical bonds that join atoms into compounds?
do chemical reactions that release energy often occur spontaneously?
will chemical reactions that absorb energy occur without a source of energy?