ch.2

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angelinasunshine
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106838
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ch.2
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2011-10-06 01:42:50
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  1. a pure substance that consists entirely of one type of atom
    element
  2. atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons they contain
    isotopes
  3. why do all isotopes of an element have the same chemical properties?
    they have the same number of electrons
  4. __________ have unstable nuclei and break down at a constant rate over time
    radioactive isotopes
  5. a substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions
    compound
  6. what are the main types of chemical bonds?
    ionic and covalent bonds
  7. _____ bond is formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
    ionic
  8. atom that has a positive or negative charge
    ion
  9. _____ bond is formed when electrons are shared between atoms
    covalent
  10. the smallest unit of most compounds
    molecule
  11. intermolecular forces of attraction
    van der Waals forces
  12. why ia a water molecule polar?
    there is an uneven distribution of electrons between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms
  13. an attraction between molecules of the same substance
    cohesion
  14. an attraction between molecules of different substances
    adhesion
  15. mixture of two or more substances in which the molecules of the substances are evenly distributed
    solution
  16. substance that is dissolved in a solvent to make a solution
    solvent
  17. mixture of water and nondissolved materials
    suspension
  18. compound that forms hydrogen ions (H+) in solution
    acid
  19. compound that produces hydrogen ions (OH+) in solution
    base
  20. weak acid or base that can react with strong acids or bases to help prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH
    buffer
  21. the study of all compounds that contain bonds between carbon atoms
    organic chemistry
  22. a carbon atom can bond to other carbon atoms which __________________________
    gives carbon the ability to form chains (carbon-carbon)
  23. chains of carbon atoms can close upon themselves to form ____
    rings
  24. small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers
    monomer
  25. large compound formed from combinations of many monomers
    polymer
  26. compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms
    carbohydrate
  27. what is carbohydrate's function
    major source of energy for human body
  28. single sugar molecule
    monosaccharide
  29. large macromolecule formed from monosaccharides
    polysaccharide
  30. 4 groups of organic compounds found in living things
    carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, proteins
  31. how do plants and some animals use carbohydrates?
    for structural purposes
  32. what supplies immediate energy for all cel activities?
    breakdown of sugars
  33. living things store extra sugar as _____
    starches
  34. galactose and fructose are examples of ____
    monosaccharides
  35. aniaml starch/glycogen is an example of ______
    polysaccharide
  36. what do animals store excess sugar in?
    glycogen/animal starch
  37. what do plants use to store excess sugar?
    plant starch
  38. what does cellulose do for plants?
    give plants much of their strength and rigidity
  39. macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes
    lipid
  40. macromolecule containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus
    nucleic acid
  41. monomer of nucleeic acids made up of a 5 carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and nitrogenous base
    nucleotide
  42. single stranded nucleic acid that contains sugar ribosome
    RNA (ribonucleic acid)
  43. nucleic acid that contains the sugar deoxyribse
    DNA
  44. macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen
    protein
  45. what is protein's function?
    grows and repairs the body; makes up enzymes
  46. compound with an amino group on one end and a carbodyl group on the other end
    amino acid
  47. process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals
    chemical reaction
  48. element or compound that enteres into a chemical reaction
    reactant
  49. element or compound produced by chemical reaction
    product
  50. energy needed to get a reaction started
    activation energy
  51. substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
    catalyst
  52. protein that acts as a biological catalyst
    enzyme
  53. reactant of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction
    substrate
  54. what is lipids' functions?
    store energy; important parts of biological membranes and waterproof coverings
  55. proteins' functions?
    • -control the rate of reactions
    • -regulate cell processes
    • -used to form bones & muscles
    • -transport substances into or out of cells
    • -helps fight diseases
  56. what always involves changes in the chemical bonds that join atoms into compounds?
    chemical reactions
  57. do chemical reactions that release energy often occur spontaneously?
    yes
  58. will chemical reactions that absorb energy occur without a source of energy?
    no

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