Study of how drugs should be administered and what their clinical effects should be a result of their use
International Non-propreitary Name, also known as the Non-proprietary Name (NPN).
A drug's "common" name.
AKA proprietary name.
Identified by a superscript R (registered name) or TM (trademark).
Pharmaceutical company usually allowed a time-limited monopoly on the use of name and supply of the drug.
e.g. BrufenR, AdvilR
Can be marketed when the patent (period) expires for a branded product or if a new product is marketed that contains an ingredient that is not covered by a patent.
Uses either common name or common name with prefix or suffix to distinguish the company producing the generic line of products.
e.g. Ibruprofen or Apo-ibuprofen
Original brand product is still being marketed at the time the generic product is being marketed.
e.g. AnadinR Extra or AnadinR Ibuprofen
Exceptions to INN rule: paracetamol
paracetamonl vs acetaminophen (both INNs)
UK paracetamol (e.g. PanadolR) vs acetaminophen USA and Canada (e.g. TylenolR)
Exceptions to INN rule: epinephrine
epinephrine vs adrenaline
USA and Canada epinephrine vs UK and Australia adrenaline (BAN - British Approved Name)
British Approved Name (e.g. adrenaline instead of epinephrine)
Exceptions to INN rule: seratonin
seratonin vs 5-hydroxytryptamine
seratonin used in the naming of drugs (e.g. SSRI's), 5-hydroxytryptamine used for designating the mechanism of action of the drug (e.g. 5-HT1 sites for some anti-migraine drugs, of 5-HT3 sites for some anti-migraine drugs)
Specific seratonin re-uptake inhibitors
Another reason for two names for a drug
Desire to avoid errors in naming
To make the spelling simpler
Can take a while for all sources to recognise a recommended name
Older texts will still have older common name
e.g. allergy drug chlorpheniramine renamed chlorphenamine (INN or new BAN)
e.g. antiviral drug acyclovir renamed aciclovir (INN)
e.g. anti-allergy drug sodium cromoglycate renamed sodium cromoglicate (INN)
Monoamine oxidase inhibitor (inhibits enzyme that's involved in the way epinephrine works)
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug
A class of anti-hypocholesterolaemia drugs (e.g. pravastatin and simvastatin)
Gamma aminobutyric acid
5-hydroxytryptamine (also known as seratonin)
AcChE or AChE
Acetylcholin esterase (metabolizes acetylcholine)
Cholinesterase (metabolizes acetylcholine)
Drugs for medicinal use administered in the form of pharmaceuticals
Some drugs available as specially formulated products for human use (AKA designated products), e.g. new experimental drugs.
Optimize drug delivery
Minimize chance of side effects
Obtained by the public by a defined process
Allows to distinguish between medicines and chemicals used illegally for 'medicinal' or recreational purposes
Changes in content of medicine may be required by legislation (e.g. a drug can be withdrawn from use or its concentration changed for a different use)
What are the MHRA and DTI responsible for?
Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency and the Department of Trade and Industry
Responsible for products outwith the Medicines Act and the definition of products approved for human use
Prescription only Medicines
Needs a doctor's prescription
'Filled' by a pharmacist
Optometrists can access and use some PoM's (e.g. eyedrops) with having to write a prescription
Direct sale to px under supervision of their acces (e.g. within a pharmacy)
Optometrists can supervise a supply of certain P medicines (e.g. eyedrops) to pxs
e.g. eye drop chloramphenicol for conjunctivitis
General Sales List or Sales List
Over-the counter (OTC) medicinal or non-medicinal products
Available from chemists, pharmacies and supermarkets
Intermediate category between P meds and GSL where large pack size/conc. is P med, smaller pack/conc. is GSL
Other products for human use
'General products' or 'unlicenced products'
Carry a desgination of maufacturing quality (e.g. e-labelled - approved by European legislations)
'Alternative medicines' or herbal remedies, e.g. St John's Wort, access is unrestricted
Nutritional supplements, includingh vitamins
SL items marketed as products to support a 'medical device' (MD), e.g. products for cleaning or re-wetting a contact lens
e.g. Monthly Index of Medical Specialities (MIMS) and the British National Formulary (BNF) (a bi-annual)
Reliable soure of information on pharmaceuticals and products (and drugs they contain)
Reflect the information the manufacturers provide
Includes details of the contents of the pharmaceuticals or products and instructions for their use