Psych ch 1

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Psych ch 1
2011-10-06 10:49:28

devolopmental psych ch. 1
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  1. Child Development
    an area of study devoted to understanding constancy and change from conception through adolescence
  2. Developmental Science
    includes all changes we experience throughout the lifespan
  3. Three broad domains of Development
    Physical, Cognitive and emotional/social
  4. Prenatal period:
    from conception to birth
  5. Infancy and toddlerhood
    birth to 2 years
  6. Early Childhood
    2 to 6 years
  7. Middle Childhood
    6 to 11 years
  8. Adolescence
    11 to 18 years
  9. theory
    orderly, integrated set of statements that describes, explains and predicts behavior
  10. Continuous Development
    process of gradually adding more of the same types of skills that were there to begin with
  11. Discontinuous Development
    a process in which new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times
  12. stages
    qualitative changes in thinking, feeling and behaving that characterize specific periods of development
  13. Contexts
    unique combinations of personal and environmental circumstances that result in different paths of change
  14. Plasticity
    open to change in response to influential experiences
  15. Medieval
    Childhood was regarded as a separate period of life as early as medieval europe.
  16. The Reformation
    the belief in the original sin gave rise to the view that children were born evil
  17. John Locke
    • blank slate
    • nurture
    • many courses of development and high plasticity at later ages due to new experiences
  18. Rousseau
    • noble savages
    • only be harmed by adult training
    • concept of stage
    • concept of maturation
  19. Normative approach
    measures of behavior are taken on large numbers of individuals and age related averages are computed to represent typical development
  20. Psychoanalytic perspective
    children move through a series of stages in which they confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectations. How these conflicts are resolved determines the person's ability to learn, get along with others and cope with anxiety
  21. Psychosexual theory
    (freud) how parents manage their child's sexual and aggressive drives in the first few years is crucial for healthy personality development
  22. psychosocial theory
    (Erikson) emphasized that in addition to mediating btwn id impulses and super ego demands, the ego makes a positive contribution to development, acquiring attitudes and skills that make the individual and active contributing member os society
  23. behaviorism
    • (watson) directly observable events--stimuli and responses -- are the appropriate focus of the study
    • classical conditioning
    • development as continuous
  24. opperant conditioning
    • (Skinner)
    • reinforcers and punishment to increase or decrease a behavior
  25. Social learning theory
    • (Bandura) emphasizes modeling, also known as imitation or observational learning as a powerful source of development
    • stresses importance of cognition
    • develop a sense of self efficacy
  26. Behavior modification
    procedures that combine conditioning and modeling to eliminate undesirable behaviors and increase desirable responses
  27. Jean Piaget
    • Hs influenced contemporary development more than any other
    • cognitive development theory
    • four main stages (sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete operational, formal operational)
  28. Cognitive development theory
    (Piagets) children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world
  29. information processing
    the mind is viewed as a symbol manipulating system through which information flows. From the time information is presented at input emerges as a behavioral response output information is actively coded transformed and organized
  30. Developmental cognitive neuroscience
    brings together researchers from psych, biology, neuroscience, and medicine to study the relationship between changes in the brain and the developing child's cognitive processing and behavior patterns
  31. Ethology
    concerned with the adaptive or survival, value of behavior and its evolutionary history
  32. imprinting
    the early following behavior of certain baby birds
  33. Sensitive period
    a time that is biologically optimal for certain capacities to emerge because the individual is especially responsive to environmental influences
  34. Evolutionary development psychology
    seeks to understand the adaptive value os species-wide cognitive, emotional and social competencies as those competencies change with age~ evolutionary psychologists want to understand the entire organism-environment system
  35. Sociocultural theory
    focuses on how culture-the values beliefs customs and skills of a social group -- is transmitted to the next generation
  36. Ecological systems theory
    (Bronfenbrenner) views the child as developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment ex: micro meso exo and macro systems.
  37. microsytem
    the innermost level of the environment, consists of activities and interaction patterns in the childs immediate surroundings
  38. Mesosystem
    second level, encompasses connectiosn between microsystem's, such as home, school, neighborhood and childcare center
  39. Exosystem
    consists of social settings that do not contain children but never the less affect children's experiences in immediate settings ex: workplace, religious institutions, health services
  40. Macrosystem
    the outermost level of Bronefenbrenners model, consists of cultural values, laws, customs, and resources
  41. Chronosystem
    life changes can be imposed on the child or they can arise from within the child since as children get older they select, modify and create many of their own settings and experiences
  42. Dynamic system perspective
    the childs mind, body, and physical and social worlds form an integrated system that guides mastery of new skills; system is constantly in motion
  43. Naturalistic observation
    approach is to go into the field or natural environment, and observe the behavior of interest
  44. structured observation
    the investigator sets up a laboratory situation that evokes the behavior of interest
  45. clinical interview
    flexible conversational styles used to probe for the participants point of view
  46. structured interview
    each participant is asked the sam questions in the same way
  47. correlation coefficient
    a number that describes how two measures or variables are associated with one another
  48. experimental design
    permits inferences about cause and effect because researchers use an evenhanded procedure to assign people two or more treatment conditions
  49. independent variable
    one that the investigator expects to cause changes in another variable
  50. dependent variable
    one the investigator expects to be influenced by the independent variable
  51. random assignment
    increases the chance that participants characteristics will be equally distributed acrosstreatment groups
  52. longitudinal design
    participants are studied repeatedly and changes are noted as they get older
  53. cohort effects
    children born at the same time who are influenced by particular cultural and historical conditions
  54. cross sectional design
    groups of people differing in age are studied at at the same point in time
  55. sequential design
    in which they conduct several cross sectional or longitudinal studies (called sequences) at varying times
  56. microgenetic design
    and adaption of the longitudinal approach presents children with a novel task and follows their mastery over a series of closely spaced sessions. within the microsystem of development, researchers see how change occurs