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have same molecular formula but different structures
Define CONSTITUTIONAL ISOMERS
AKA Structural Isomers
differ in the order of attachment of atoms
atoms are connected in the same order but differ in spacial arrangement
nonsuperimposable mirror images
isomers that are not mirror images
differ at one of several asymmetric carbon atoms
isomers that differ at a new asymmetric carbon atom formed on ring closure
aldehyde + alcohol =?
ketone + alcohol = ?
glucose forms ______ ring structure
pyranose ring is a ___ member ring
furanose is a ___ member ring
fructose forms _______ and _____ rings
furanose and pyranose
where are the OH groups on d-ribose in a fischer projection?
all OH groups are on the RIGHT branches
Ribose = Right OHs
fructose is a ____sugar
Glucose is reducing/non-reducing?
Lactose is reducing/non-reducing?
ALDOsugars become ________ in a redox reaction
aldosugars are reducing agents
_________ retains a lot of water and is used for cell hydration and cell to cell adhesion
sucrose is reducing/non-reducing?
amylose is _______ while amylopectin is _____
amylose is UNBRANCHED while amylopectin is BRANCHED
proteoglycans are _______ and occur in ______
and occur in
accumulation of proteoglycans can lead to what disease?
Hurler's disease (gargoylism)
________ is the only L-sugar in our body
N-linked sugars bind to _____ residues and O-linked binds to _______ and _______ residues
N-linked sugars bind to
residues and O-linked binds to
N-linked sugars come in what 3 groups?
what are lectins?
carbohydrate binding proteins
sat. fatty acids contain ____ double bonds and unsat. fatty acids contain _____ double bonds
sat. fatty acids contain NO double bonds and unsat. fatty acids contain SOME double bonds
unsat. fatty acids are in ___ configurations
unsat. fatty acids are in CIS configurations
how do you find omega-3 fatty acids?
look for a = at the 3rd bond from the end of the molc
factors affecting fatty acids melting point
incr. in double bonds ______ MP
trans-double bonds _______ MP
incr. chain length ________ MP
incr. in double bonds
incr. chain length
what is a "long-chain fatty amine"?
sphingosine AKA shingophospholipid
factors affecting membrane fluidity
longer fatty acid means _____ fluid
more double bonds means _____ fluid
longer fatty acid means
more double bonds means
cholesterol ______ fluidity at high temps and ______ fluidity at low temps
fluidity at high temps and
fluidity at low temps
in general, what do kinases do?
adenylate cyclase generates ____
GTP activates ______
cAMP activates ______
protein kinase A
_________ breaks down cAMP
what are the 3 types of receptors discussed in class?
7TM (seven-transmembrane-helix receptors)
intrinsic tyrosine receptors
what 2 receptors dimerize in the presence of a ligand?
intrinsic tyrosine and non-tyrosine receptors
ligand-mediated receptor dimerization facilitaes __________
JAK stands for _________
STAT stands for ___________
signal transducers and activator of transcription
the insulin binding site is wht type of receptor?
intrinsic tyrosine receptor
__________ promotes glycogen synthase during insulin signalling
what is done to glucose so that it cannot leave the cell?
glucose is polymerized into glycogen
________ is the major activator of zymogens
BIOCHEM EXAM2 signal transduction carbohydrates membrane structure lipids nutrition digestion absorption