BIOCHEM EXAM2

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ffloyd
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106923
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BIOCHEM EXAM2
Updated:
2011-10-06 14:16:26
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BIOCHEM EXAM2 signal transduction carbohydrates membrane structure lipids nutrition digestion absorption
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BIOCHEM EXAM2
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  1. Define ISOMER
    have same molecular formula but different structures
  2. Define CONSTITUTIONAL ISOMERS
    • AKA Structural Isomers
    • differ in the order of attachment of atoms
  3. Define STEREOISOMERS
    atoms are connected in the same order but differ in spacial arrangement
  4. Define ENANTIOMERS
    nonsuperimposable mirror images
  5. Define DIASTEREOISOMERS
    isomers that are not mirror images
  6. Define EPIMERS
    differ at one of several asymmetric carbon atoms
  7. Define ANOMERS
    isomers that differ at a new asymmetric carbon atom formed on ring closure
  8. aldehyde + alcohol =?
    hemiacetal
  9. ketone + alcohol = ?
    hemiketal
  10. glucose forms ______ ring structure
    pyranose
  11. pyranose ring is a ___ member ring
    6
  12. furanose is a ___ member ring
    5
  13. fructose forms _______ and _____ rings
    furanose and pyranose
  14. where are the OH groups on d-ribose in a fischer projection?
    • all OH groups are on the RIGHT branches
    • Ribose = Right OHs
  15. fructose is a ____sugar
    KETOsugar
  16. Glucose is reducing/non-reducing?
    reducing
  17. Lactose is reducing/non-reducing?
    reducing
  18. ALDOsugars become ________ in a redox reaction
    • oxidized
    • aldosugars are reducing agents
  19. _________ retains a lot of water and is used for cell hydration and cell to cell adhesion
    sialic acid
  20. sucrose is reducing/non-reducing?
    non-reducing
  21. amylose is _______ while amylopectin is _____
    amylose is UNBRANCHED while amylopectin is BRANCHED
  22. proteoglycans are _______ and occur in ______
    proteoglycans are structural proteins and occur in connective tissue
  23. accumulation of proteoglycans can lead to what disease?
    Hurler's disease (gargoylism)
  24. ________ is the only L-sugar in our body
    L-fucose
  25. N-linked sugars bind to _____ residues and O-linked binds to _______ and _______ residues
    N-linked sugars bind to asparagine(Asn) residues and O-linked binds to serine(Ser) and threonine(Thr) residues
  26. N-linked sugars come in what 3 groups?
    • high-mannose
    • complex
    • hybrid
  27. what are lectins?
    carbohydrate binding proteins
  28. sat. fatty acids contain ____ double bonds and unsat. fatty acids contain _____ double bonds
    sat. fatty acids contain NO double bonds and unsat. fatty acids contain SOME double bonds
  29. unsat. fatty acids are in ___ configurations
    unsat. fatty acids are in CIS configurations
  30. how do you find omega-3 fatty acids?
    look for a = at the 3rd bond from the end of the molc
  31. factors affecting fatty acids melting point
    incr. in double bonds ______ MP
    trans-double bonds _______ MP
    incr. chain length ________ MP
    • incr. in double bonds decr. MP
    • trans-double bonds incr. MP
    • incr. chain length incr. MP
  32. what is a "long-chain fatty amine"?
    sphingosine AKA shingophospholipid
  33. factors affecting membrane fluidity
    longer fatty acid means _____ fluid
    more double bonds means _____ fluid
    • longer fatty acid means less fluid
    • more double bonds means more fluid
  34. cholesterol ______ fluidity at high temps and ______ fluidity at low temps
    cholesterol decreases fluidity at high temps and increases fluidity at low temps
  35. in general, what do kinases do?
    phosphoralates proteins
  36. adenylate cyclase generates ____
    cAMP
  37. GTP activates ______
    adenylate cyclase
  38. cAMP activates ______
    protein kinase A
  39. _________ breaks down cAMP
    phosphodiesterase
  40. what are the 3 types of receptors discussed in class?
    • 7TM (seven-transmembrane-helix receptors)
    • intrinsic tyrosine receptors
    • non-tyrosine receptors
  41. what 2 receptors dimerize in the presence of a ligand?
    intrinsic tyrosine and non-tyrosine receptors
  42. ligand-mediated receptor dimerization facilitaes __________
    cross phosphorylation
  43. JAK stands for _________
    STAT stands for ___________
    • Janus kinase
    • signal transducers and activator of transcription
  44. the insulin binding site is wht type of receptor?
    intrinsic tyrosine receptor
  45. __________ promotes glycogen synthase during insulin signalling
    activated Akt
  46. what is done to glucose so that it cannot leave the cell?
    glucose is polymerized into glycogen
  47. ________ is the major activator of zymogens
    trypsin

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