Anatomy and Physiology
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Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System
Autonomic Nervous System
Two types of cells found in the nervous system are called?
Neurons and glia
Specialized connective tissue
Neuron consists of three parts what are they?
Cell body, dendrites, and axon
Projections that transmit impulses to the cell body
Processes that transmit impulses away from the cell body
What are the three types of neurons?
Sensory, motor, and interneurons
- Transmit impulses to the spinal cord and brain from all over the body.
- Also called afferent neuron.
- Transmit impulses in the opposite direction of the brain and spinal cord. Conduct impulses to muscle and glandular epithelial tissue.
- Also called efferent neurons.
- Conduct impilses from sensory neurons to motor neurons.
- Sometimes called central or conducting neurons.
White fatty substance formed by Schwann cells surround some axons.
Nodes of Ranvier
Found between Schwann cells.
Outer cell membrane of Schwann cell.
What holds the functioning neurons together and protects them?
Common type of brain tumor.
- Large glia that look like stars.
- They attach to neurons and sm blood vessels holding the structures close together.
- Form a two layer structure called BBB.
- Blood-brain Barrier
- Seperates blood tissue and nervous tissue from harmful chemicals that might be in the blood.
- Smaller than astrocytes.
- Act as micro-eating scavengers.
- Help hold nerve fibers together.
- Produce fatty myelin sheath that covers nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cord.
Glial cells that form myelin sheaths in the PNS.
Group of axons bundled together.
- Bundles of axons in CNS.
- Myelinated and form white matter of the brain and cord.
Cell bodies and unmyelinated axons.
Thin wrapping of fibrous connective tissue on a axon.
Group of wrapped axons.
Is a thin fibrous that surrounds a fascicle.
Tough fibrous sheath that covers the whole nerve.
Routes that nerve impulses travel.
Specialized type of neuron pathway.
Beginning of dendrites of sensory neurons.
Group of nerve-cell bodies located in the PNS.
Microscopic space that seperates the axon ending of one neuron from dendrites of another.
Muscles or glands.
Response to impulse conduction over a reflex arc.
Three-neuron arc reaction.
Impulse travel that is much faster than is possible in nonmyelinated sections.
Synapse is the place where impulses are transmitted from one neuron.
Impulses transmitted from one neuron to another.
Three structures make up a synapse what are they?
- Synaptic knob
- Synaptic cleft
- Plasma membrane of a postsynaptic neuron
Tiny bulge at the end of terminal branch of a presynaptic neuron's axon.
Are chemicals by which neurons communicate.
Space between a synaptic knob and the plasma membrane of a postsynaptic neuron.
Substance that is released at some of the synapses in the spinal cord and at neuromuscular junctions.
Protective membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord.
Consists of gray and white matter.
- Is in the medulla Oblongata.
- Bits of gray matter mix closely with white matter.
- Small but important part of the brain located between the midbrain and below the cerebrum above.
- Consists of hypothamlumus and thalamus.
- Located below thalamus
- Produces hormones that the posterior pituitary gland secretes into the blood.
- Maintains body's water balance, body temp
ADH (Antidiuretic hormone)
Affects the volume of urine excreted.
- Helps produce sensations
- It associates sensations with emotions
- Plays a part in the arousal or alerting mechanism
- Second largest part of the brain.
- Outer layer-gray matter
- Inner layer-white matter
- Largest and uppermost part of the brain
- Ridges are called gyri
- Function:consciousness, thinking, memory,sensation,emotions
- Also known as basal ganglia
- Essential for producing automatic movements and posture
- Columns of white matter form outer portion of spinal cord
- Bundles of myelinated nerve fibres
conduct impulses up the cord to the brain
Conduct impulses down the cord from the brain.
Spinal Cord Reflexes
Result from conduction over arcs whose centers lie in the spinal cord
Loss of sensation
Loss of the ability to make voluntary movements.
Tough outer layer that lines the vertebral canal
Innermost membrane covering the spinal cord itself.
Membrane between the dura and the pia mater.
Network of brain capillaries
Water on the brain
The PNS includes what?
Cranial and spinal nerves
- 12 pairs
- Oh Once One Takes The Anatomy Final A Good Vacation Seems Heavenly
Skin surface areas that are supplied by a single nerve
ANS consists of?
- Cardiac muscle tissue
- Smooth muscle tissue
- Glandular epithelial tissue
- Composed of sympathetic system and parasympathetic system
- Autonomic neurons
- Conduct impulses between spinal cord and ganglion
Conduct impulses from a ganglion to cardiac muscle, smooth muslce, or glandular epithelial tissue
Autonomic or Visceral Effectors
Tissues to which autonomic neurons conduct impulses.
Sympathetic Preganglion Neurons
Dendrites and cell bodies in gray matter of thoracic and upper lumbar segments of the spinal cord.
Sympathetic Postganglionic Neurons
Have dendrites and cell bodies in sympathetic ganglia
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