Anatomy and Physiology

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Anatomy and Physiology
2011-10-06 13:48:26

Chapter 8 Nervous System
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  1. CNS
    Central Nervous System
  2. PNS
    Peripheral Nervous System
  3. ANS
    Autonomic Nervous System
  4. Two types of cells found in the nervous system are called?
    Neurons and glia
  5. Neurons
    Nerve cells
  6. Glia
    Specialized connective tissue
  7. Neuron consists of three parts what are they?
    Cell body, dendrites, and axon
  8. Dendrites
    Projections that transmit impulses to the cell body
  9. Axon
    Processes that transmit impulses away from the cell body
  10. What are the three types of neurons?
    Sensory, motor, and interneurons
  11. Sensory Neurons
    • Transmit impulses to the spinal cord and brain from all over the body.
    • Also called afferent neuron.
  12. Motor Neurons
    • Transmit impulses in the opposite direction of the brain and spinal cord. Conduct impulses to muscle and glandular epithelial tissue.
    • Also called efferent neurons.
  13. Interneurons
    • Conduct impilses from sensory neurons to motor neurons.
    • Sometimes called central or conducting neurons.
  14. Myelin
    White fatty substance formed by Schwann cells surround some axons.
  15. Nodes of Ranvier
    Found between Schwann cells.
  16. Neurilemma
    Outer cell membrane of Schwann cell.
  17. What holds the functioning neurons together and protects them?
    Glia (neuroglia)
  18. Glioma
    Common type of brain tumor.
  19. Astrocytes
    • Large glia that look like stars.
    • They attach to neurons and sm blood vessels holding the structures close together.
    • Form a two layer structure called BBB.
  20. BBB
    • Blood-brain Barrier
    • Seperates blood tissue and nervous tissue from harmful chemicals that might be in the blood.
  21. Microglia
    • Smaller than astrocytes.
    • Act as micro-eating scavengers.
  22. Oligodendrocytes
    • Help hold nerve fibers together.
    • Produce fatty myelin sheath that covers nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cord.
  23. Schwann Cells
    Glial cells that form myelin sheaths in the PNS.
  24. Nerves
    Group of axons bundled together.
  25. Tracts
    • Bundles of axons in CNS.
    • Myelinated and form white matter of the brain and cord.
  26. Gray Matter
    Cell bodies and unmyelinated axons.
  27. Endoneurim
    Thin wrapping of fibrous connective tissue on a axon.
  28. Fascicles
    Group of wrapped axons.
  29. Perineurium
    Is a thin fibrous that surrounds a fascicle.
  30. Epineurium
    Tough fibrous sheath that covers the whole nerve.
  31. Action Potential
    Nerve impulses.
  32. Neuron Pathways
    Routes that nerve impulses travel.
  33. Reflec Arc
    Specialized type of neuron pathway.
  34. Receptors
    Beginning of dendrites of sensory neurons.
  35. Gandlion
    Group of nerve-cell bodies located in the PNS.
  36. Synapse
    Microscopic space that seperates the axon ending of one neuron from dendrites of another.
  37. Effectors
    Muscles or glands.
  38. Reflex
    Response to impulse conduction over a reflex arc.
  39. Withdrawl Reflex
    Three-neuron arc reaction.
  40. Saltatory Conduction
    Impulse travel that is much faster than is possible in nonmyelinated sections.
  41. Presynaptic Neuron
    Synapse is the place where impulses are transmitted from one neuron.
  42. Postsynaptic Neuron
    Impulses transmitted from one neuron to another.
  43. Three structures make up a synapse what are they?
    • Synaptic knob
    • Synaptic cleft
    • Plasma membrane of a postsynaptic neuron
  44. Synaptic Knob
    Tiny bulge at the end of terminal branch of a presynaptic neuron's axon.
  45. Neurotransmitter
    Are chemicals by which neurons communicate.
  46. Synaptic Cleft
    Space between a synaptic knob and the plasma membrane of a postsynaptic neuron.
  47. Acetylcholine
    Substance that is released at some of the synapses in the spinal cord and at neuromuscular junctions.
  48. Meninges
    Protective membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord.
  49. Medulla Oblongata
    Consists of gray and white matter.
  50. Reticular formation
    • Is in the medulla Oblongata.
    • Bits of gray matter mix closely with white matter.
  51. Diencephalon
    • Small but important part of the brain located between the midbrain and below the cerebrum above.
    • Consists of hypothamlumus and thalamus.
  52. Hypothalamus
    • Located below thalamus
    • Produces hormones that the posterior pituitary gland secretes into the blood.
    • Maintains body's water balance, body temp
  53. ADH (Antidiuretic hormone)
    Affects the volume of urine excreted.
  54. Thalamus
    • Helps produce sensations
    • It associates sensations with emotions
    • Plays a part in the arousal or alerting mechanism
  55. Cerebellum
    • Second largest part of the brain.
    • Outer layer-gray matter
    • Inner layer-white matter
  56. Cerebrum
    • Largest and uppermost part of the brain
    • Ridges are called gyri
    • Function:consciousness, thinking, memory,sensation,emotions
  57. Cerebral Nuclei
    • Also known as basal ganglia
    • Essential for producing automatic movements and posture
  58. Spinal Tracts
    • Columns of white matter form outer portion of spinal cord
    • Bundles of myelinated nerve fibres
  59. Ascending Tracts
    conduct impulses up the cord to the brain
  60. Descending Tracts
    Conduct impulses down the cord from the brain.
  61. Spinal Cord Reflexes
    Result from conduction over arcs whose centers lie in the spinal cord
  62. Anesthesia
    Loss of sensation
  63. Paralysis
    Loss of the ability to make voluntary movements.
  64. Dura Mater
    Tough outer layer that lines the vertebral canal
  65. Pia Mater
    Innermost membrane covering the spinal cord itself.
  66. Arachnoid Mater
    Membrane between the dura and the pia mater.
  67. CSF
    Cerebrospinal Fluid
  68. Choroid Plexus
    Network of brain capillaries
  69. Hydrocephalus
    Water on the brain
  70. The PNS includes what?
    Cranial and spinal nerves
  71. Cranial Nerve
    • 12 pairs
    • Oh Once One Takes The Anatomy Final A Good Vacation Seems Heavenly
  72. Dermatomes
    Skin surface areas that are supplied by a single nerve
  73. ANS consists of?
    • Cardiac muscle tissue
    • Smooth muscle tissue
    • Glandular epithelial tissue
    • Composed of sympathetic system and parasympathetic system
  74. Ganglia
    Junction boxes
  75. Preganglionic Neurons
    • Autonomic neurons
    • Conduct impulses between spinal cord and ganglion
  76. Postganglionic Neurons
    Conduct impulses from a ganglion to cardiac muscle, smooth muslce, or glandular epithelial tissue
  77. Autonomic or Visceral Effectors
    Tissues to which autonomic neurons conduct impulses.
  78. Sympathetic Preganglion Neurons
    Dendrites and cell bodies in gray matter of thoracic and upper lumbar segments of the spinal cord.
  79. Sympathetic Postganglionic Neurons
    Have dendrites and cell bodies in sympathetic ganglia