OB - Chapter 2

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OB - Chapter 2
2011-10-06 13:56:35
OB Chapter

OB Chapter 2 Midterm
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  1. Perception
    The process by which individuals organiza and interpret their impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.
  2. What causes people to have different perceptions of the same situation?
    • The situation
    • The target
    • The perceiver
  3. Attribution Theory
    The theory that when we observe what seems like atypical behaviour by an individual, we attemp to determine whether it is internally or externally caused
  4. Distictiveness
    A behavioural rule that considers whether an individual act similarly across a cariety of situations
  5. Consensus
    A behavioural rule that considers if everyone faced with a similar situation reponds in the same way.
  6. Consistency
    A behavioural rule that considers whether the individual has been acting in the same way overtime
  7. Fundamental Attribution Error
    The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgement about the behavior of others.
  8. Self-serving bias
    The tendency for individuals to attribute their own success to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors.
  9. Selective Perception
    People's selective perception interpretation of what they see based on their interest, background, experince, and attributes.
  10. Halo Effect
    Drawing a general impression of an individual on the basis of a single characteristic
  11. Contrast Effect
    The concept that our reaction to one person is often influenced by other people we have recently encountered.
  12. Projection
    Attributing one's own characteristics to other people
  13. Stereotyping
    Judging someone on the basis of one's perception of the group to which that person belongs.
  14. Heuristics
    judgement shortcuts in decision making
  15. Prejudice
    An unfounded dislike of a person or group based on their belonging to a particual stereotyped group
  16. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
    A concept that proposes a person will behave in ways consistentwith how he or she is perceived by others
  17. Personality
    The stable patterns of how bahaviour and consistent internal states that determine how an individual reacts to and interacts with other
  18. Personality Traits
    Enduring characteristics that describe an individual's behavior
  19. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
    A personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people into 1-16 personalities types.
  20. Extraversion
    A personality factor that describes the degree to which a person is sociable, talkative and assertive.
  21. Agreeableness
    A personality factor that describes the degree to which a person is good-natured, cooperative, and trusting.
  22. Conscientiousness
    A personality factor that describes the degree to which a person is responsible, dependable, persistent, and achievement-oriented.
  23. Emotional Stability
    A personality factor that describes the degree to which a person is calm, self-confident, and secure.
  24. Openness to experince
    A personality factor that describes the degree to which a person is imaginative, artistically sensitive, and intellectual
  25. Core self-evaluation
    The degree to which an individual likes or dislikes himself, whether the person sees himself or herself as capable and effective, and whether the person feels in control of his or her environment or powerless over the environment.
  26. Machiavellianism
    The degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means.
  27. Narcissis
    The tendency to be arrogant, have grandiose sense of self-importance, require excessive admiration, and have a sense of entitlement.
  28. Self-monitoring
    A personality trait that measures an individual's ability to adjust behavior to external, situational factors.
  29. risk-taking
    A person's willingness to take chances and risks
  30. type A personality
    A personality with aggressive involvement in a chronic, incessant struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time, if necessary, against the opposing efforts of other things or people
  31. Type B personality
    A personality that is decribed as easy-going, relaxed and patient
  32. proactive Personality
    A person who indentifies opportunities, shows initiative, takes actions, and perseveres until meaningful change occurs
  33. Emotions
    intensive feelings that are directed at someone or something
  34. Moods
    Feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus.
  35. Emotional Dissonance
    Incossistencies between the emotions people feel and the emotions the show
  36. Felt emotions
    an individual's actual emotions
  37. Displayed Emotions
    Emotions that are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job
  38. Surface acting
    Hiding one's inner feelings to display what is expected
  39. Deep acting
    trying to modify one's true inner feelings to match what is expected
  40. Emotional Inteligence (EI)
    An assortment of nincognitive skills, capabilities, and competencies that influence a person's ability to suceed in coping with environmental demands and pressures
  41. Employee Deviance
    Voluntary actions that violate established norms and threaten the organization, its members, or both.
  42. Affective Events theory
    The theory that employees react emotionally to things that happen to them at work and that this emotional reaction influences their job performance and satisfaction.