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  1. acetylcholine
    enables muscle action, learning, and memory.
  2. action potential
    a neural impulse; a brief electrial charge that travels down an axon.
  3. adrenal glands
    a pair of endocrine glands that sit above the kidneys and secrete hormones that help arouse the body in times of stress.
  4. autonomic nervous system
    the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs. Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.
  5. axon
    the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands.
  6. central nervous system
    the brain and the spinal cord.
  7. dendrite
    the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that recieve messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body.
  8. dopamine
    influences movement, learnin, attention and emotion.
  9. endocrine system
    the body's 'slow' chemical communication system; a set of glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
  10. endorphines
    natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure.
  11. hormones
    chemical messengers that are manufactured by the endocrine glands, travel through the bloodstream, and affect other tissues.
  12. interneurons
    neurons within the brain and the spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs.
  13. motor neurons
    neurons that carry outgoing information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands.
  14. myelin sheath
    a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next.
  15. nervous system
    the body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems.
  16. neuron
    a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system.
  17. neurotransmitter
    chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.
  18. norepinephrine
    helps control alertness and arousal.
  19. parasympathetic nervous system
    the division
Card Set:
2011-10-06 20:05:19

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