Biology Test 1

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mglicc
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106955
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Biology Test 1
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2011-10-17 07:37:42
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Biology Chapters Margret McGee
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Why do you need a description? I don't actually care why because I'm not going to give you one anyway. Have a nice day.
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  1. Change over time is also known as __________.
    EVOLUTION
  2. The amount of time from birth to reproduction is known as ___________.
    a GENERATION
  3. Individuals who are well suited to their environment will survive and reproduce. Individuals who are not well suited to their environment may die and/or reproduce less. This is an example of a phenomenon called ______________.
    NATURAL SELECTION
  4. Why does NATURAL SELECTION occur?
    it occurs because of NATURAL VARIATION
  5. Genetic differences between members of the same species is known as ___________.
    NATURAL VARIATION
  6. non-genetic differences between members of a species are known as _______________.
    ACQUIRED CHARACTERISTICS
  7. What are the three reasons that natural selection occurs?
    NATURAL VARIATION, ACQUIRED CHARACTERISTICS, and STRUGGLE FOR EXISTANCE.
  8. Those with _____ fitness survive and pass on their genes. (high/low)
    HIGH
  9. Why do members of each species compete with eachother to obtain food, water, shelter, and mates?
    because more individuals are born than can be supported by the environment.
  10. ____________ (1833) was a geologist who studied volcanoes and volcanic activity.
    Charles Lyell
  11. Who was the first to theorize that events in the past can be explained by observing current situations?
    geologist CHARLES LYELL
  12. __________ (1798) theorized that populations have a maximum size limit caused by disease, famine and war.
    THOMAS MALTHUS
  13. Who held the theory that if a population exceeds a certain number, events will occur to reduce that number to an acceptable size?
    THOMAS MALTHUS.
  14. Preserved remains of ancient organisms are also known as __________.
    FOSSILS
  15. What was the name of the scientist who believed in evolution through use and disuse of organs?
    JEAN-BAPTISTE LAMARCK.
  16. Structures that are not used anymore but are still present are called _________________.
    VESTIGIAL structures
  17. Structures that are different in internal appearance, but serve the same function are known as ___________________.
    ANALOGOUS structures
  18. Structures that are similar in internal appearance but have a different function are called _______________________________.
    HOMOLOGOUS structures.
  19. What are the four pieces of evidence that support evolution?
    • 1. VESTIGAL STRUCTURES
    • 2. FOSSILS
    • 3. SIMILARITIES IN EMBRYOLOGICAL STRUCTURE
    • 4. HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURES
  20. Where did Charles Darwin go in 1831?
    He went on the HMS Beagle as a naturalist.
  21. Who influenced Charles Darwin's theory in 1795 before Darwin embarked on his expedition?
    JAMES HUTTON.
  22. Who were the two scientists who concluded that the Earth is extremely old and that the processes that changed the Earth in the past are the same processes that operate in the present?
    HUTTON and LYELL
  23. ______________ suggested that organisms could change during their lifetimes by selectively using or not using various parts of their bodies, and could pass on these acquired traits on to their offspring, enabling species to change over time.
    LAMARCK
  24. What two facts proved Lamarck's theory as incorrect?
    the fact that ORGANISMS DON'T HAVE AN INBORN DRIVE TO BECOME MORE PERFECT, and the fact that TRAITS ACQUIRED BY INDIVIDUALS DURING THEIR LIFETIME CANNOT BE PASSED ON TO OFFSPRING.
  25. When nature provides the variations, and humans select those they find useful, it is called ______________.
    ARTIFICIAL SELECTION
  26. What is the term for any heritable characteristic that increases an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in its environment?
    an ADAPTATION.
  27. ____________ describes how well an organism can survive and reproduce in its environment.
    FITNESS
  28. The process by which organisms with variations most suited to their local environment survive and leave more offspring is known as ___________________.
    NATURAL SELECTION
  29. What are the three things that can cause NATURAL SELECTION to occur?
    • 1. THE STRUGGLE FOR EXISTENCE
    • 2. VARIATION AND ADAPTATION
    • 3. SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST
  30. Natural heritable variation is known as _______________.
    VARIATION AND ADAPTATION
  31. What is the term for when more individuals are born than can survive?
    THE STRUGGLE FOR EXISTENCE.
  32. What do paterns in the distribution of living ad fossil species tell us?
    They tell us HOW MODERN ORGANISMS EVOLVED FROM THEIR ANCESTORS.
  33. The study of where organisms live now and where they and their ancestors lived in the past is called _______________.
    BIOGEOGRAPHY
  34. ___________ structures are inherited from ancestors but have lost much or all of their original function due to different selection pressures acting on the descendant.
    VESTIGIAL stuctures
  35. The wing of a bee and the wing of a bird are both examples of ____________ structures.
    ANALOGOUS
  36. Clue to common descent is common ___________, not common __________.

    A) function, structure
    B) structure, function
    B) structure, function
  37. Body parts that share a common function but not structure are called __________________.
    ANALOGOUS STRUCTURES
  38. Structures that are shared by related species and that have been inherited from a common ancestor are called homologous structures.
  39. What does the fact that the front limbs of reptiles and birds are more similar to eachother than either is to the front limb of an amphibian mammal indicate? What is it an example of?
    It indicate that the common ancestor of reptiles and birds lived more recently than the common ancestor of reptiles, birds , and mammals. Its an example of a HOMOGLUOUS STRUCTURE.
  40. What do the universal genetic code and homologous molecules provide evidence of?
    COMMON DESCENT.

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