chapter 3.txt

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chapter 3.txt
2011-10-06 16:55:31

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  1. basic building block of matter
  2. 3 classes of matter
    elements, compounds, mixtures
  3. what is an element?
    made up of all one kind of atom (atoms may exist singly or bonded to each other to form molecules)
  4. examples of elements
    helium, oxygen, fluorine, nitrogen, hydrogen, neon...
  5. what is a compound?
    made up of molecules whose atoms are different. these atoms must be bonded together in a specific ratio
  6. examples of compounds
    CO2, CO, H2O, NaCl, C6H12O6, HCl
  7. what is a mixture?
    units (atoms or molecules) are not bonded to each other. units are different.
  8. what are the three types of mixtures?
    solutions, colloids, heterogeneous
  9. what would the units of a mixture of elements be?
  10. what would the unit of a mixture of compounds be?
  11. what types of matter are homogeneous?
    elements and compounds and sometimes mixtures
  12. what types of matter are heterogeneous?
  13. homogeneous mixtures are also called what?
  14. characteristics of homogeneous mixtures
    units are evenly distributed throughout & particles are too small to scatter light
  15. characteristics of suspensions
    units almost evenly distributed, called colloid, particles bigger, scatter light, cloudy
  16. characteristics of heterogeneous mixtures
    units not evenly distributed, particle size irrelevant
  17. what is a solution made up of?
    solute and solvent
  18. what is a solute?
    substance present in lesser amounts (stuff being dissolved)
  19. what is a solvent?
    substance present in greater amounts (stuff doing the dissolving)
  20. gas in gas mixtures
    solution: air (O2, N2, CO2, Ar)
  21. heterogeneous: radon and nitrogen (radon sinks)
  22. gas in a liquid mixture
    solutions: carbonated beverages
  23. colloids: carbonated beverages
    foams- whipped cream & shaving cream
  24. gas in a solid mixture
    colloid: solid foam-marshmallow
  25. liquid in gas mixture
    colloid: fog
  26. liquid in liquid mixture
    solution: ethyl alcohol & water
  27. colloid: emulsions- mayo, homogenized milk
  28. heterogeneous: vinegar and oil, milk from a cow
  29. liquid is a solid mixture
    heterogeneous: water in shortening
  30. solid in gas mixture
    colloid: smoke, smog
  31. solid in liquid mixture
    solutions: salt in water, sugar in water
  32. colloids: paint, ink, hemoglobin in the blood, protoplasm
  33. heterogeneous: sand and water
  34. solid in solid mixture
    solutions: brass- zinc and copper, sterling silver- solver and copper
  35. colloids: pearls, opals
  36. heterogeneous: iron and sulfur, gold and silver
  37. most elements and compounds found in nature are what?
  38. physical properties
    shape, mass, size, state (solid, liquid, gas), density, color, volume, texture, melting point, boiling point, hardness, luster, odor, taste, magnetism, malleability, ductility, conductivity, pH
  39. chemical properties
    proportions, kind of atom, flammability, angles of atoms, type of substance that it will react of combine with, reactivity, ineRT, corrosive, caustics, cooking
  40. what is a physical change?
    alters appearance but not composition of matter
  41. what is a chemical change?
    bonds are broken, and new ones formed. there is a change in composition of the matter. need a chemical reaction before you can have a chemical change. individual atoms retain their identity
  42. physical changes
    cutting, molding, dissolving, melting, evaporating, boiling, condensation, freezing, crystallizing, deposition, sublimation, hammering, slicing, solubility
  43. chemical changes
    burning, rusting, acid corroding metals
  44. result of a particle emission
    atomic number decreases two, atomic mass decreases 4
  45. result of � particle emission
    atomic number increased by one, atomic mass stays the same
  46. result of ? ray
    atomic number and atomic mass stay the same
  47. result of electron capture
    atomic number decreases by one, atomic mass stays the same
  48. result of positron emission
    atomic number decreased by one atomic mass stays the same
  49. if you have too many neutrons, what decay is used?
  50. if you have too many protons, what decay is used?
  51. 40 -what number is mass number & what
  52. C number is atomic number?
  53. 20
    mass= 40
  54. atomic number=20
  55. what is miscible?
  56. chromatography
    PHYSICAL separation of a mixture based on adsorption, solubility of a solute in a solvent, and movement of a mobile phase on a stationary phase
  57. mobile phase
    the phase that moves
  58. ex: methanol
  59. stationary phase
    the phase that remains still
  60. ex: paper
  61. solute
    the substance in a solution that is present in the least amounts (the solid part, the substance that gets dissolved)
  62. solvent
    the substance in a solution that is present in the greatest amounts (the liquid part, the substance that does the dissolving)
  63. absorb
    particles of one substance move into and occupy spaces in between the particles of another substance
  64. adsorb
    particles of one substance attract and stick to the particles of another substance
  65. solubility
    the amount of a substance that dissolves in a particular solvent at a particular temerature
  66. dissolving is accompanied by what other change?
    energy changes
  67. adsorption coefficient
    if it is low, it means the substances do not stick together with much strength. if it is high, it means the substances stick together tightly
  68. Rf=?
    distance traveled by solute/ distance traveled by solvent