Card Set Information
basic building block of matter
3 classes of matter
elements, compounds, mixtures
what is an element?
made up of all one kind of atom (atoms may exist singly or bonded to each other to form molecules)
examples of elements
helium, oxygen, fluorine, nitrogen, hydrogen, neon...
what is a compound?
made up of molecules whose atoms are different. these atoms must be bonded together in a specific ratio
examples of compounds
CO2, CO, H2O, NaCl, C6H12O6, HCl
what is a mixture?
units (atoms or molecules) are not bonded to each other. units are different.
what are the three types of mixtures?
solutions, colloids, heterogeneous
what would the units of a mixture of elements be?
what would the unit of a mixture of compounds be?
what types of matter are homogeneous?
elements and compounds and sometimes mixtures
what types of matter are heterogeneous?
homogeneous mixtures are also called what?
characteristics of homogeneous mixtures
units are evenly distributed throughout & particles are too small to scatter light
characteristics of suspensions
units almost evenly distributed, called colloid, particles bigger, scatter light, cloudy
characteristics of heterogeneous mixtures
units not evenly distributed, particle size irrelevant
what is a solution made up of?
solute and solvent
what is a solute?
substance present in lesser amounts (stuff being dissolved)
what is a solvent?
substance present in greater amounts (stuff doing the dissolving)
gas in gas mixtures
solution: air (O2, N2, CO2, Ar)
heterogeneous: radon and nitrogen (radon sinks)
gas in a liquid mixture
solutions: carbonated beverages
colloids: carbonated beverages
foams- whipped cream & shaving cream
gas in a solid mixture
colloid: solid foam-marshmallow
liquid in gas mixture
liquid in liquid mixture
solution: ethyl alcohol & water
colloid: emulsions- mayo, homogenized milk
heterogeneous: vinegar and oil, milk from a cow
liquid is a solid mixture
heterogeneous: water in shortening
solid in gas mixture
colloid: smoke, smog
solid in liquid mixture
solutions: salt in water, sugar in water
colloids: paint, ink, hemoglobin in the blood, protoplasm
heterogeneous: sand and water
solid in solid mixture
solutions: brass- zinc and copper, sterling silver- solver and copper
colloids: pearls, opals
heterogeneous: iron and sulfur, gold and silver
most elements and compounds found in nature are what?
shape, mass, size, state (solid, liquid, gas), density, color, volume, texture, melting point, boiling point, hardness, luster, odor, taste, magnetism, malleability, ductility, conductivity, pH
proportions, kind of atom, flammability, angles of atoms, type of substance that it will react of combine with, reactivity, ineRT, corrosive, caustics, cooking
what is a physical change?
alters appearance but not composition of matter
what is a chemical change?
bonds are broken, and new ones formed. there is a change in composition of the matter. need a chemical reaction before you can have a chemical change. individual atoms retain their identity
cutting, molding, dissolving, melting, evaporating, boiling, condensation, freezing, crystallizing, deposition, sublimation, hammering, slicing, solubility
burning, rusting, acid corroding metals
result of a particle emission
atomic number decreases two, atomic mass decreases 4
result of � particle emission
atomic number increased by one, atomic mass stays the same
result of ? ray
atomic number and atomic mass stay the same
result of electron capture
atomic number decreases by one, atomic mass stays the same
result of positron emission
atomic number decreased by one atomic mass stays the same
if you have too many neutrons, what decay is used?
if you have too many protons, what decay is used?
40 -what number is mass number & what
C number is atomic number?
what is miscible?
PHYSICAL separation of a mixture based on adsorption, solubility of a solute in a solvent, and movement of a mobile phase on a stationary phase
the phase that moves
the phase that remains still
the substance in a solution that is present in the least amounts (the solid part, the substance that gets dissolved)
the substance in a solution that is present in the greatest amounts (the liquid part, the substance that does the dissolving)
particles of one substance move into and occupy spaces in between the particles of another substance
particles of one substance attract and stick to the particles of another substance
the amount of a substance that dissolves in a particular solvent at a particular temerature
dissolving is accompanied by what other change?
if it is low, it means the substances do not stick together with much strength. if it is high, it means the substances stick together tightly
distance traveled by solute/ distance traveled by solvent