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What is sociology?
science guided by the understanding that "the social matters: our lives are affected not only by our individual characterstics but by our place in the social world"
What is sociological imagination?
The ability to look beyond the individual as the cause for success and failure and see how one’s society influences the outcome
What does the development of a sociological imagination do?
helps you understand your place in a complex world
How is sociological imagination generated?
- must understand how the outside forces contribute to their situation
- both history and biography of a situation
What is micro?
small scale perspective
What is macro?
large scale perspective
Who is Emile Durkheim?
proposed there are two forces that determine whether a person will commit suicide
What are the two forces that dertermine whether a person will commit suicide?
What is solidarity?
the level of connectedness and integration a person feels to others in the environment
What is social control?
refers the the social mechanisms that regulate a person's actions
What are the types of suicide?
What is egoistic suicide?
suicide that results from a lack of solidarity
What is altruistic suicide?
suicides that occur when the level of solidarity is really high
What is fatalistic suicide?
suicides that result from a lack of social control
What is anomic suicide?
suicides that occur as a result from social unrest
What social factors influence personal choices such as suicide?
- time of the year: low in winter and high in spring
- profession: police have higher rate
- age: risk increases with age
What is a paradigm?
a theoretical framework through which scientists study the world
What are the three major paradigms?
- conflict theory
- symbolic interactionism
What is functionalism?
- a theoretical paradigm that defines society as a system of interrelated parts
- parts work in concert with one another to satisfy the needs of society as a whole
What is conflict theory?
a theoretical framework that views society and an unequal system that brings conflict and change
What is symbolic interactionism?
a theoretical framework that focuses on how people interact with others in their everyday lives
Who is Auguste Comte?
- coined word sociology
- started functionalist paradigm
- social laws, social statics, and social dynamics
What are social laws?
statements of fact that are unchanging under given conditions and can be used as ground rules for any kind of society
What are social statics?
existing structural elements of society
What are social dynamics?
the change in the structural elements in society
What do functionalists believe?
- social institutions are critical for society to function properly
- a society's valies and norms provide the foundation for rules and laws
- focus on macro processes
Who is Herbert Spencer?
- applied the theory of Darwin to sociology
- social darwinism
What is social darwinism?
strong societies survive and weak ones become extinct
Who is Emile Durkheim?
- viewed society as an organism
- solidarity was a vital component of society
- mechanical and organic solidarity
What is mechanical solidarity?
the state of community bonding in traditional societies in which people share beliefs and values and perform common activities
What is organic solidarity?
occurs when people live in a society with a large division of labor
Who was Albion Small?
created first department of sociology
Who was Talcott Parsons?
- created theories that attempted to explain aspects of human experiences and how social systems interconnect
- if one part of society broke down it had repercussions for entire system
- analyzed inertia of the social system
Who was Robert Merton?
- wanted to find a middle range theory that bridges the gap between grand theories and the study of individual parts in society
- social realities have both intended and unintended functions
What are functions?
social factors that affect people in society
What are manifest functions?
functions that lead to an expected consequence
What is latent functions?
functions that lead to unforeseen or unexpected consequences
What are the criticisms of functionalism?
- does not take into consideration wealth and power on society formation
- emphasizes the social structures of society & supports the status quo
What do conflict theorists believe?
- elite at the top determine the rules for those below
- examine struggles between different groups in society
- focus on macro processes
Who is Karl Marx?
- analyzed the effects of capitalism
- an economic system in which private individuals own businesses and control the economy
Who are bourgeoisie?
members of the capitalist class
Who are proletariat?
members of the poor working class
What is false consciousness?
a person's lack of understanding of his or her position in society
What is class consciousness?
understanding of one's position in the class system
Who is Harriet Martineau?
- focused on inequalities of the sexes
- analyzed the impact of slavery and position of women in society
- conflict paradigm
Who was W.E.B. DuBois?
- initiated study of race
- showed poverty among blacks was largely the result of prejudice and discrimination
- capitalism and problems of history
- double consciousness
What is double consciousness?
- the two worlds that african americans had to live in
- one white and one black
Who is Jane Adams?
- participated in and wrote about the life of the poor
- initiated the settlement house movement
What were the three principles that Jane Adams work was based on?
- 1.Workers would live in the slums to better understand the problems there
- 2.Every person has dignity and worth regardless of race/ethnicity, gender or social class
- 3.Dedication, education, and service can overcome ignorance, disease and other problems often associated with poverty
Who is John Bellamy Foster?
wrote about the negative effects of capitalism
What are the criticisms of conflict theory?
- its too radical
- centers on the idea that powerful people oppress the weak
- ignores the fact that competition can make individuals work harder
What to symbolic interactionists believe?
- the root of society comes from its symbols which varies from society to society
- society is fluid
- micro orientation
What are some examples of symbols?
language, pictures, flags, nonverbal communication, etc.
Who is George Herbert Mead?
- founder of symbolic interactionism
- suggested the root of society is symbols that teach us to understand the world
- building blocks of society starts with our mind where we interpret symbols
What is the self?
a person's identity and what makes the person different from others develops
How are symbols the key to society?
- they have meaning and meaning directs our lives
- helps us understand the people in other societies
- help define a situation & determine what we should do about it
Who is Herbert Blumer?
established 3 basic premises that define symbolic interactionism
What are the 3 basic premises that define symbolic interactionism?
- 1.Human beings behave toward things on the basis of the meanings they ascribe to those things
- 2.The meaning of such things is comes the social interaction that one has with others and society
- 3.These meanings are handled in and modified through an interpretive process used by the person in dealing with the things he or she encounters
How is our behavior in group settings?
What is contagion?
rapid, irrational mode in which people do not think rationally or clearly
Who is Erving Goffman?
developed the dramaturgy theory
What is dramaturgy?
- a theory of interaction where all life is like acting
- we are constantly trying to manage the impressions that others have of us
What is impression management?
the action we use to control what others think of us
What is research methods?
scientific procedures that sociologists use to conduct research and develop knowledge about a particular topic
What is the first concept that sociologists must take into consideration?
What is objectivity?
the ability to conduct research without allowing personal biases or prejudices influence you
What are independent variables?
variables that are deliberately manipulated in an experiment
What are dependent variables?
the response to the manipulate variable
What are control variables?
variables that are kept constant to accurately test the impact of an independent variable
What is a casual relationship?
a relationship in which one condition leads to a certain consequence
What is causation?
the relationship between cause and effect
What is correlation?
an indication that one factor might be the cause for another factor
What is positive correlation?
two variables that move in parallel direction
What is negative correlation?
occurs when variables move in opposite directions
What is spurious correlation?
occurs when two variables appear to be related but actually have a different cause
What is social research?
investigation conducted by social scientists
What are the six basic steps of social research?
- 1.decide on a topic
- 2.review the literature
- 3.develop a hypothesis
- 4.collect data
- 5.analyze results
- 6.share and publish results
What is a literature review and what does it do?
- a study of relevant academic articles and information
- lets you know what other researchers have previously discovered on the topic
What is a hypothesis?
a suggestion about how variables relate
What is theory?
a comprehensive and systematic explanation of events that lead to testable predictions
How are variables measured?
concepts and operationalizing variables
What are concepts?
abstract ideas that are important to measure
What is operationalizing?
turning abstract ideas into something measurable
What is a survey?
an investigation of the opinions or experience of a group of people by asking them questions
What are the steps of conducting a survey?
- 1.clarify your purpose
- 2.define your population
- 3.choose a sample
- 4.prepare questions
- 5.decide how to collect data
- 6.collect data
- 7.record,analyze, and interpret data
What is population?
target groups that researches want to get information from
What is parsimony and why must it be practiced?
- extreme unwillingness to use resources
- must be practiced because sociologists are usually limited in resources
What is a sample?
a subset of the population
What is generalization?
the extent that what is learned from a sample can be applied to the population from which the sample is taken
What is a random sample?
a group of subjects arbitrarily chosen from a denied population
What is a sample of convenience?
a non-random sample available to the researcher
What is selection effects?
the likelihood that a non-representative sample may lead to inaccurate results
Why are experiments used?
- to test ideas
- researchers try to control variables to test causes and effects
What is hawthorne effect?
occurs when people behave differently because they know they are part of an experiment
What is field research?
research conducted in a natural setting
What is participant observation?
a type of field research where the researchers pose as a person who is normally in the environment
What are case stadies?
investigations of one person or event in detail
What is ethnography?
a research method that aims to understand the social perspective and cultural values of a particular group by participation with or getting to know their activities in detail
What is secondary data?
data that others have already collected and published
What is secondary data analysis?
the process of using and analyzing data that others have collected
What is central tendency?
the numbers in the middle of an array of numbers
What is median?
the midpoint in a distribution of numbers
What is mode?
the most common value in a distribution of numbers
Why should you share and publish results?
- allows others to read and use your findings in their own research
- expands the base of knowledge
What are ethics?
a system of values or principles that guide one's behavior
What are the 5 general principles that make up ethical practice?
- 1.professional competence
- 3.profrssional and scientific responsibility
- 4.respect for people's rights,dignity,and diversity
- 5.social responsibility
What is triangulation and why is it used?
- the process of using multiple approaches to study a phenomenon
- relying on one method could cause you to draw inappropriate conclusions
How do functionalists interpret data?
would examine how an issue functions or has consequences in society
How do social conflict theorists interpret data?
would study how the same phenomenon affect the unequal distribution of goods or rewards in society
How do symbolic interactionists interpret data?
focus more on how the issue affected people on the individual level
What does culture include?
language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and material objects
What are material objects?
objects that are passed on from generation to generation
What is material culture?
culture that includes items that you can taste, touch, or feel
What is nonmaterial culture?
culture that includes the nonphysical products of society
What is language?
a system of speech and/or written symbols used to convey meaning and communication
What two factors determine the size of a language group?
population size and colonial history
What is the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis?
the structure of a language determines a native speaker's perception and catagorization experience
What are the two key points of the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis?
- 1.differences in the structure of language parallel differences in the thinking of people who speak language
- structure of a language strongly influences the speaker's worldview
What are the U.S. Values according to Robin Williams?
- achievement and success
- activity and work
- moral orientation
- efficiency and practicality
- material comfort
- external conformity
- science and secular reationality
- nationalism and patriotism
- individual personality
- racism and related group superiority
What are the additional U.S. values?
- physical fitness and youthfulness
- sexuality and romance
What are norms?
- rules developed for appropriate behavior based on specific values that are conditional
- can vary from place to place
- provide justification for sanctions
What are mores?
norms that represent a community's most important values
What are folkways?
- informal norms
- based on social expectations
- involves etiquette and manners
What are symbols?
represent, suggest or stand for something else
What is cultural transmission?
- culture passes from one generation to another through language
- enables culture to use info others have learned
- helps spread technology
What are gestures?
- symbols we make using our bodies
- differ according to different cultures
What is a sanction?
a prize or punishment you receive when you abide by a norm or violate it
What is a taboo?
an act that is socially unacceptable
What is ethnocentrism?
occurs when a person uses his or her own culture to judge another culture
What is xenophobia?
fear and hostility toward people who are from other countries or cultures
What is cultural relativism?
a deliberate effort to appreciate a group's way of life in its own context without prejudice
What is cultural lag?
- occurs when social and cultural changes occur at a slower pace than technological changes
- often occurs when new technology enters and changes the society
What is culture shock?
occurs when a person encounters a culture foreign to his or her own and has an emotional response to the differences between cultures
What is ideal culture?
represents the values to which a culture aspires
What is real culture?
the culture as it really is
What are subcultures?
conists of groups with a common interest that has distinct values, beliefs and norms
What are countercultures?
subcultures that express values or beliefs in direct opposition to the dominant group's values
What is multiculturalism?
a concept that supports the inherent value of different cultures within society
What is assimilation?
- the process by which minority groups adopt the patterns of the dominant culture
- can be forced or voluntary
What is macrosociology?
- the study of large-scale society
- focuses on the social structures that exist within a society that andure from one generation to the next
What is microsociology?
deals primarily with the small interactions of daily life
What are social structures?
- patterns of relationships that endure from one generation to the next
- arrangements of systems that people in society interact and are able to live together
What is culture?
the language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors and material objects that are important enough to be passed on to future generations
What is a group?
any number of people with similar norms, values, and behaviors who frequently interact with one another
What are primary groups?
small, intimate, enduring groups such as the family and close friends
What are secondary groups?
formal, superficial, temporary groups such as relationships with most class mates
What is social class?
- a group with similar access to power, wealth, and prestige
- importance varies within different societies
What is status?
the position that you can occupy within the social structure which is closely linked to social class
What is achieved status?
a position that you earn or do something to attain
What is ascribed status?
a position in society that is assigned
What is master status?
- a status toward which we gravitate
- may be what is most important to us or others
What is a social role?
the behavior of a specific status
What is role expectations?
anticipated behaviors for a particular role
What is role performance?
the degree to which a person plays the whole in a manner we expect
What is role conflict?
a phenomenon occuring when one is forced to choose between the competing demands of multiple roles
What is role strain?
the demands with expectations of one role are impossible for us to satisfy
What is a stigma?
a mark of disgrace associated with a particular status, quality, or person
What is discredited stigma?
a stigma that cannot be hidden from others or is no longer hidden from others
What is discreditable stigma?
a stigma that can be concealed from others
What happens to societies over time?
- complexity changes
- become more diverse
- leads to changes in social structure
What are the stages of society over time?
- hunting and gathering societies
- agricultural societies
- industrial societies
- postindustrial society
What were hunting and gathering societies?
- humans lived as hunters and gatherers
- lived in small groups
- status and roles closely linked
- everyone had to be involved in the production of food
What are agricultural societies?
- pastoral and horticultural societies
- learned to domesticate plants and animals
- learned to use simple hand tools to till the soil and plant seeds and raise and animals
- invention of the plow
What are industrial societies?
- industrial revolution
- complex machines replace human labor
- technology used to make goods
- developed and improved the standard of living
- less inequality
What are postindustrial societies?
- society based on services and technology
- seek manufacturing goods and food from other societies
- large surpluses of wealth
What qualities do postindustrial societies have according to Bell?
- 1.a shift from manufacturing to services
- 2.the centrality of the new science based industries
- 3.rise of new technical elites
What are social institutions?
- structures that provide for patterned relationships
- roles and statuses are already established
- change with the type of society and culture
What are families?
- a cultural universe
- exist in various forms
What do families do?
- teach the value of sharing and mutual support
- provide safety and security needs for members
- pass on important values and provide for children and elderly
What are educational systems?
- transfer knowledge and information of the society to new members
- can be formal or informal
What are religious systems?
- vary a great deal
- most unify people through an organized system of beliefs
What do educational and religious systems do?
stabalize society and provide a framework for people to live their lives
What do economic systems allow?
allow for the consumption, production and transition of goods in an orderly fashion
What did early economic systems involve?
- more advanced societies use money as system of exchange
What are political systems?
distribute power in society
What are the four types of personal space?
- intimate distance
- personal distance
- social distance
- public distance
What is intimate distance?
distance for those with whom we are very close
What is personal distance?
- distance that ranges from 18 inches to 4 feet
- distance for normal conversation
What is social distance?
- distance that ranges from 4 feet to 12 feet
- usually for formal settings
What is public distance
- zone of interaction that is used in highly formal settings
- distance greater than 12 feet
What is fron stage?
- what the audience sees
- part of ourselves that we present to others
What is backstage?
the demeanor that incorporates our true feelings and beliefs
What is embarrassment?
a start that occurs when we realize our act has failed
What is face-saving work?
reaction to embarrassment, either humor, anger, or retreat
What is demographic similarity?
shared characteristics such as a race, gender, or age
What is supervisor-focused management?
techniques that involve flattering your boss and agreeing with his or her opinion or avoiding disagreement
What is self-focused management?
techniques that include acting modest about your accomplishments, boasting occassionally about your successes
What are the five primary tasks of society that create social structures, according to functionalists?
- 1.adaption and replacement
- 2.orientation and socialization
- 3.production and economy
- 4.social order
- 5.unity and purpose