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2011-10-06 20:57:22
biology mind

Chapter 2 biology of the mind
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  1. Nervous System
    Consists of all the nerve cells. It is the body's speed, electrochemical communication system
  2. Central Nervous System (CNS)
    brain and spinal cord
  3. Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
    the sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body
  4. Nerves
    consist of neural "cable"containing many axons. They are part of the PNS and connect muscles, glands, and sense organs to the CNS
  5. Neurons
    Basic unit of the nervous system. Allow communication between the brain and sensory organs, internal organs, and muscles.
  6. Sensory Neurons (Afferent)
    Conduct sensory impulses from eyes, ears, and other sense organs to the CNS.
  7. Motor Neurons(Efferent)
    Conduct motor impulse out from the CNS to muscles and organs
  8. Interneurons
    Connect one neuron to an other
  9. Cell Body
    the cell's life support center
  10. Dendrites
    receive messages from other cells
  11. Axons
    passes messages away fro the cell body to other neurons, muscles, or glands
  12. Neural impulse
    action potential electrical signal traveling down teh axon
  13. Terminal branches of axon
    from junction with other cells
  14. Myelin sheath
    covers the axon of some neurons and helps speed neural impulses
  15. How neurons communicate signals

    Electrochemical Process
    Electrical-conduction of impulse within neuron

    Chemical- transmission of impulse between neurons
  16. Conduction of Impulse

    each neuron receives excitatory and inhibitory signals from many neurons. When the excitatory signals minus the inhibitory signals exceed a minimum intensity(threshold) the neurons fires and action potential i.e. electrical impulse passes down the axon with constant intensity
  17. Conduction of impulse

    re polarization
    once fires, resting potential returns
  18. Conduction of impulse

    Absolute Refractory Period
    brief period of time after firing when neuron won't fire
  19. Conduction of impulse

    all or none law
    Neuron either firing with full intensity of resting (resting potential.) Increases in intensity of stimulation don't cause stronger impulse but lead to more rapid firing or to activation of more neurons.
  20. conduction of impulse

    relative refractory period
    period of time after firing when neuron will only fire in response to strong stimulation
  21. Transmission of message

    small gap between axon of one neuron and the dendrite of another through which chemical messages are transmitted
  22. transmission of message

    Axon terminal
    The end of the axon. Contains synaptic vesicles.
  23. transmission of message

    Action potential
    causes vesicle to open and release neurotransmitters(chemicals that have specific different shapes) which travel across synapse and bind to matching receptor sites on receiving neuron, thereby influencing it to generate an action potential
  24. Reuptake
    Neurotransmitters in the synapse are reabsorbed into the sending neurons through the process of reuptake.

    This process applies the brakes on neurotransmitter action.
  25. Lock and key Mechanism
    Neurotransmitters bind to the receptors of the receiving neuron in a key-lock mechanism
  26. How some drugs work

    Agonist neurotransmitter
    the agonist molecule excites. It is similar enough in structure to the neurotransmitter molecule that it mimics its effects on the receiving neuron.

    Morphine- mimics the actions of endorphins by stimulating receptors in brain areas involved in mood and pain sensations
  27. how some drugs work

    antagonist neurotransmitter
    this molecule inhibits. it has a structure similar enough to the neurotransmitter to occupy its receptor site and block its action, but not similar enough to stimulate the receptor.

    curare poisoning- paralyzes its victims by blocking ach receptors involved in muscle movement
  28. Dopamine pathways
    involved in movement, attention, emotion, and learning.
  29. serotonin pathways
    involved with mood, sleep, hunger, and arousal regulation
  30. Acetylcholine
    Enables muscle action, learning, and memory

    Alzheimer's desease, ach producing neurons deteriorate
  31. dopamine
    influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion

    excess dopamine receptor activity linked to schizophrenia
  32. serotonine
    affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal

    undersupply linked to depression prozac and some other antidepressant drugs raise serotonin levels
  33. Norepinephrine
    helps control alertness and arousal

    undersupply can depress mood
  34. GABA(gamma-aminobutyric acid)
    a major inhibitory neurotransmitter

    undersupply linked to seizures, tremors, and insomnia
  35. Glutamate
    a major excitatory neurotransmitter involved in memory
  36. Endocrine System

    The body's slow chemical communication system

    Consists of glands distributed around body that release hormones into bloodstream.
  37. hormones
    chemical messengers that influence behavior. ex. epinephrine (adrenaline) increases heart rate & blood pressure during emergency

    - Hormones travel longer distances and their effects slower & more prolonged than neurotransmitters (some chemicals can be both.)
  38. hypothalamus
    brain region controlling the pituitary gland
  39. thyroid gland
    affects metabolism
  40. adrenal glands
    sit above kidneys, secrete hormones (epinephrine and norepinephrine) that help arouse the body in times of stress.
  41. testis
    secretes male sex hormones
  42. ovary
    secretes female hormones
  43. pituitary gland
    • secretes many different hormones, some of which affect other glands
    • regulates growth.
  44. parathyroid
    help regulate teh level of calcium in the blood
  45. pancreas
    regulates the level of sugar in the blood
  46. The spinal cord and reflexes
    • 1. information is carried from skin receptors along a sensory neuron to the spinal cord. From here it is passes via interneurons to motor neurons that lead to muscles in the hand and arm
    • 2. this reflex involves or spinal cord, the hand jerks away from candle flame even before informing it about the event has reached the point of causing the experience of pain
  47. Computerized Axial Tomography (CT or CAT scan)
    a series of x-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a 3d composite representation of the brain

    • used to detect tumors and stroke damage
    • CTs have been useful in identifying schizophrenia patients. In these patients' brains: the ventricles (fluid- filled open spaces), are significantly larger than in normal individuals, which means that they have less brain tissue to process cognitive functions.
    • Instead of a flat, two-dimensional X-ray picture, CT scanners produce a series of successive images. Taken as the patient, lying down, moves through a scanning ring, these "slices" can be combined to create the illusion of a 3-D image.
    • Detects such things as tumors & stroke damage.
  48. Electroencephalogram(EEG)
    • - An amplified recording of the electrical waves sweeping across the brain’s surface, measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.
    • - Brain activity is plotted as a line (Brain wave).
    • - Used in sleep and other kinds of brain research.
  49. MRI Scan Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    • - Uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of brain tissue.
    • - Allows us to see structures within the brain - Used for diagnosing tumors and epilepsy.
  50. FMR
    • measures brain function. It tracks brain activity by monitoring changes in how much oxygen the brain cells are consuming. That serves as an indicator of how much blood is flowing to various brain regions, which in turn shows how active the neurons are.
    • •Typically, fMR subjects are placed in an MRI machine and asked to perform a mental task such as remembering and repeating words presented to them.
  51. Postion Emission tomography PET
    • - A visual display of brain metabolic activity.
    • - Detects where a radioactive form of glucose travels while the brain performs a given task.
    • - Useful for identifying changes in mental activity & in blood flow.
  52. Brain Lessons
    • A naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue.
    • Researchers study change in behaviors after such destruction.
  53. Reticular Formation
    Brain stem
    Attention, arousal, wakefulness
  54. Medulla
    Brain stem
    Heartbeat, breathing, digestion, and vital reflexes (sneezing, vomiting, swallowing, coughing, etc.)
  55. Thalamus
    Brain stem
    Sensory hub. Processes most sensory info to sensory areas in cortex, and transmits replies to cerebellum and medulla.
  56. Cerebellum
    • Coordination
    • The “little brain” attached to the rear of the brainstem
    • Helps coordinate voluntary movements and balance, ex. playing the piano, kicking, throwing
    • Also coordinates cognitive processes
  57. The Limbic System: Emotions & Drives
    Doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at border of brainstem and cerebrum
  58. Hypo (i.e. below) thalamus
    • regulates maintenance activities (ex. sleep, body temperature, hunger, thirst, circadian rhythm, salt & water balance) and sexual behavior.
    • Helps govern hormone secretion by endocrine system via pituitary gland.
  59. Amygdala
    involved in emotional responding (fear, anger). Reads emotional significance of input from all senses. Output influences such functions as heart rate, adrenaline release. If damaged, hard to identify emotion from facial expressions
  60. Hippocampus
    involved in forming new memories

    As the teens got older, the center of activity shifted more toward the frontal cortex which governs reason and analysis and away from the cruder amygdala which governs emotional “gut” reactions
  61. Lateralization
    • Two Cerebral Hemispheres identical in appearance & work together but have somewhat differing
    • functions
  62. Right hemisphere
    Nonverbal, spatial, perceptual, holistic & emotional functions.
  63. Left hemisphere
    Linguistic,mathematical, analytical functions.
  64. Contra-lateral Arrangement
    cross over in spinal cord
  65. Corpus Callosum
    : connects 2 hemispheres • Lateralization is never 100%
  66. Cerebral Cortex

    • Most advanced, complex functions
    • Outer wrinkled part. Body’s ultimate control center.
  67. corpus callosum
    axon fibers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres
  68. thalamus
    relays messages between lower brain centers and cerebral cortex
  69. hypothalamus
    • controls maintenance functions such as eating
    • helps govern endocrine system
    • linked to emotion and reward
  70. pituitary
    master endocrine gland
  71. reticular formation
    helps control arousal
  72. medulla
    controls hearth beat and breathing
  73. spinal cord
    • pathway for neural fibers
    • traveling to and from brain
    • controls simple reflexes
  74. cerebellum
    coordinates voluntary movements and balance and supports memories of such
  75. cerbral cortex
    ultimate control and information processing center
  76. amygdala
    linked to emotion
  77. hippocampus
    linked to memory
  78. Splitting the Brain
    • A procedure in which the two hemispheres of the
    • brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) between them.
  79. Split brain patients
    With the corpus callosum severed, objects (apple) presented in the right visual field can be named. Objects (pencil) in the left visual field cannot.
  80. The four lobes of the cortex
    Each brain hemisphere is divided into 4 lobes separated by prominent fissures
  81. Frontal Lobe
    movement (motor cortex) & thinking
  82. Parietal Lobe
    Touch & movement sensations (sensory cortex)
  83. Temporal Lobes
    hearing (auditory cortex), emotion, memory
  84. Occipital Lobes
    visual cortex
  85. Motor cortex
    controls voluntary movements.
  86. Sensory Cortex
    receives information from skin surface and sense organs.
  87. Visual Function
    The functional MRI scan shows the visual cortex is active as the subject looks at faces.
  88. Language areas
    Aphasia is an impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca’s area (impaired speaking) or to Wernicke’s area (impaired understanding). understanding).
  89. Visual cortex
    recieves written words as visual stimulation
  90. angular gyrus
    transforms visual representation sinto an auditory code
  91. wernicke's area
    interprets auditory code
  92. Broca's area
    controls speech muscles via the motor cortex
  93. motor cortex
    word is pronounced
  94. Association Areas
    More intelligent animals have increased “uncommitted” or association areas of the cortex.
  95. hearing words
    auditory cortez and Wernick's area
  96. seeing words
    visual cortex and angular gyrus
  97. speaking words
    broca's area and motor cortex
  98. The brains placidity
    • The brain is sculpted by our genes but also by our experiences.
    • Plasticity refers to the brain’s ability to modify itself after some types of injury or illness.
  99. Somatic nervous system
    The division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body’s skeletal muscles.
  100. Autonomic Nervous system
    Part of the PNS that controls the glands and other muscles.
  101. (ANS) Sympathetic NS
    arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations (fight-or- flight)
  102. Parasympathetic NS (ANS)
    calms the body, conserving its energy (rest and digest)