Chapter 40

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shortytrinh
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107015
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Chapter 40
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2011-10-06 22:43:15
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Textbook Basic Nursing
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Intro to Microbiology
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  1. Is an individual living animal or plant that is so small that it can be seen only with the aid of a microscope.
    microorganism or microbe
  2. Most of these do not cause disease under normal conditions.
    Microorganisms
  3. Organisms that are present all or most of the time in and on the body are said to be
    endemic
  4. The scientific study of microorganisms is
    microbiology
  5. Billions of species of microorganisms exist in nature. Most are beneficial and some microorganisms causes disease-producing agents and are harmful are called
    pathogens
  6. the ability to utilize nutrients
    metabolism
  7. the ability to group together to form colonies or the ability of individual cells to become larger
    reproduction
  8. a response to the environment
    irritability
  9. the ability to move from place to place
    motion
  10. such as spores, mutation, development of drug-resistant strains
    protection
  11. As the bacteria reproduce, they form groups of many millions of individual cells, collectively called
    colonies
  12. Certain environmental factors affect the ____ of microorganisms.
    metabolism
  13. Microorganisms that require oxygen for growth is
    obligate aerobes
  14. cannot suvive in the presence of oxygen
    obligate anaerobes
  15. organisms can live in either the presence or absence of oxygen
    facultative anaerobes
  16. a key ingredient for microbial growth is the presence of
    organic (carbon-containing) nutrients
  17. microorganisms also require other chemical elements such as
    • nitrogen for the manufacture of protein
    • sulfur for protein and vitamin synthesis
  18. Some microorganisms make their own food from raw materials, such as ____. Others must fine their nutrient ready-made.
    carbon dioxide
  19. are microorganisms that live on or within another living being (the host).
    parasites
  20. live off the organic remains of dead plants and animals, and most are fungi and bacterial.
    saprophytes
  21. The temperature at which a specific microorganisms grows best is its
    optimal temperature
  22. Cold temperatures often significantly ____ the growth of microorganisms.
    slows
  23. High temperatures usually ____ most microorganisms. Steam sterilization and boiling water are two common techniques used to kill pathogenic microorganisms.
    kill
  24. All microorganisms require ____ to grow.
    water or moisture
  25. Microorganisms survive only in environments with a pH that is
    neutral
  26. Some microorganism need ____ to grow, but others flourish in ____.
    • light
    • darkness
  27. Are used to identify the organism and, in the case of a pathogen, to determine ways in which to arrest the growth of the pathogen.
    cultures
  28. Cultures are usually grown in test tubes or on small, flat, covered plastic plates called Petri dishes. The material in or on which the microorganisms are placed is the
    culture medium
  29. Solid media contain ____, which is obtained from the form of seaweed.
    agar
  30. Liquid media are called
    nutrient broths
  31. Culture media msut start out ____ for a valid study.
    sterile
  32. This test is ordered when infection is suspected or known.
    culture and sensitivity (C&S)
  33. The C&S test serves the following purposes:
    • Identifies the pathogenic microorganism
    • Determines which treatment will eliminate the microorganism
    • Monitors the microorganism's repsonse to therapy
  34. The culture and sensitivity report will indicate:

    The report will indicate the various antibiotics (if any) to which the organism to sensitive.
    • the name of the test ordered
    • type of specimen
    • colony count
    • type or microorganism
    • susceptibility testing
  35. This refers to a general grouping and is listed first
    genus
  36. defines a biologically unique category and is the second name
    species
  37. Microorganisms fall into a numver of large groups
    • algae
    • fungi
    • protozoa
    • bacteria
    • viruses
  38. the many types of ___ resemble plant cells and rarely cause human disease.
    algae
  39. include the single-celled yeasts and the nulticellular molds.
    fungi
  40. an infection caused by a fungus is
    mycosis
  41. known as "ring-worm" due to ring-shaped lesions
    tinea
  42. is the study of fungus
    mycology
  43. yeast cells reproduce by a process called
    budding
  44. when yeasts metabolize sugars in the absence of oxygen, a chemical change called ____ occurs, producing alcohol and carbon dioxide.
    fermentation
  45. a example of a pathogenic yeasts is ____ which causes the disease known as thrush.
    candida albicans
  46. multicellular ____ are common in the environment
    molds
  47. this gives molds their characteristic colors
    spores
  48. Infections caused by molds include ____, which affects the lungs.
    histoplasmosis
  49. singled-celled microorganisms visible under an ordinary laboratory microscope.
    protozoa
  50. protozoa can reproduce ____ and generally live in a moisture-rich environment.
    sexually
  51. most protozoa are nonpathogenic, but amoebic dysentery is called by ____, which forms ulcers in the colon and attacks red blood cells
    entamoeba histolytica
  52. Malaria is caused by protozoan known as ____
    plasmodium malariae
  53. ____ causes vaginal infection in women and urinary tract infection in men. Transmitted from an infected individual to an uninfected partner by sexual intercourse.
    Trichomonas vaginalis
  54. Many of the microbes studied in relation to illness are in the scientific category known as
    prokaryotes
  55. Organisms with a true nucleus enclosed b a nuclear membrande and containing chromosomes that divide by mitosis are called
    eukaryotes
  56. it has been discovered that the prokaryotes are divided into two distinct categories
    • archaea
    • bacteria
  57. bacteria are primarily ____, although certain other forms do exists.
    unicellular
  58. In all prokaryotes, except the mycoplasmas, the ____ is unbound and has no nuclear membrane.
    DNA
  59. Prokaryotes that can live at very cold temperatures are called
    psychrophiles
  60. Prokaryotes that lives in room temperature or body temperature are called
    mesophiles
  61. Prokaryotes that live at very high temperatures are called
    thermophiles
  62. Cell walls showing a puple color are
    gram-positive bacteria
  63. The stain is not retained, and the organism looks pink
    gram-negative bacteria
  64. fairly long protein filaments on the cell surface.
    flagella
  65. Flagella provide the cell with the ability to move by "swimming" motion called ____ or spontaneous movement.
    motility
  66. The attachment of flagella at one or both ends of the organism is called
    polar distribution
  67. If the flagella are distributed over the entire surface of the organism, this is known as
    peritrichous distribution
  68. Prokaryotes demostrate specific tactic behavior. The can move toward or away from light
    phototaxis
  69. Prokaryotes demonstrate specific tactic behavior, a response to oxygen
    aerotaxis
  70. Prokaryotes demonstrate specific tactic behavior, to a magnetic field
    magnetotaxis
  71. refers to the ability to swim to a useful food source or nutrient or to swim away from harmful substances.
    chemotaxis
  72. are short, hair-like projections on the surface of the cell, and are made up of protein.
    fimbriae/pili
  73. More pili will provide adherence to the surface of the cell. This is a major factor in bacterial virulence, which allows pathogens to attach to body tissues and colonize into groups. It also allows bacteria to resist attack by the body's defense white blood cells
    phagocytes
  74. bacteria may be classified according to
    • shape
    • motility
    • gram's stain result
    • relationship to oxygen
  75. cocci in form of pairs
    diplococci
  76. cocci in form of clusters
    staphylococci
  77. cocci in chains
    streptococci
  78. Many bacteria are able to cause disease. To be pathogenic, bacteria must possess the following characteristics
    • ability to colonize and invade the host
    • ability to resist or endure the antibacterial defenses of the host
    • ability to form substances that are toxic to the hose
  79. the bacteria pseudomonas is responsible for ____ (pusforming)
    suppurative
  80. staphylococcus aureus is an organism normally found on the skin of healthy people and is not normally pathogenic. However, in certain situations it is considered ____, and becomes pathogenic, and will cause an illness in a person with a compromised immune system or an open wound.
    opportunistic
  81. nosocomial infection risk factors for clients in healthcare facilities include
    • a compromised immune system
    • a break in the skin following situations such as surgery or a burn
    • invasive medical procedures
    • serious underlying disorders
    • previous exposure to antimicrobial drugs
    • repeated hospitalizations
    • very old age or very young age, increasing vulnerability
    • previous infections by multi-drug-resistant organisms
  82. organisms that commonly cause nosocomial infections
    • MRSA-methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus
    • VRE-vanvomycin resistant enterococci
    • ESBLs-extended spectrum b lactamases
    • PRSP-pencillin resistant streptococcuc pneumoniae
    • EMRSA-epidemic MRSA
  83. are protein covered sacs containing the genetic material of either DNA or ribonucleic (RNA) and other organic materials.
    virus
  84. when a virus enters the cell of a living organism,the virus's nuclear material is
    activated
  85. A virus must use the host's ability to make protein and energy because the virus itself lacks the capacity to carry on
    metabolism
  86. microbiologists use the term ____ to describe the spsecific cause of a disease.
    etiology
  87. diseases caused by the spread of one person to another
    communicable
  88. diseases are communicable diseass that are transmitted to many individuals quickly and easily
    contagious
  89. when a large number of people in the same area are infected in a relatively short time, the disease is said to be
    epidemic
  90. any place where microorganism can survive before moving to a place where it can multiply
    reservoir
  91. chain of infection
    • pathogenic microorganism
    • reservoir
    • portal of exit
    • vehicle
    • portal of entry
    • susceptible host
  92. cause harmful effects by traveling through the circulatory system to damage other body cells
    toxins
  93. are part of the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria. when the bacteria dies, the cell wall decays and releases the toxins
    endotoxins
  94. are toxins manufactured by the microorganism and excreted into the surrounding tissue
    exotoxins
  95. the first stage is the ____, the time from when the pathogen enters the body to the appearance of the first symptoms of llness.
    incubation period
  96. the second phase ___ stage, the period from the onset of initial symptoms to more severe symptoms.
    profromal
  97. the third phase is the full stage of ____. during this period, the symptoms are acute nd specific to the type of infection.
    illness
  98. the final stage is the ____ stage, the acute symptoms of the infection subside and the person recovers.
    convalescence
  99. the ability of some species of microorganisms to live together is called
    symbiosis
  100. one species of microorganism prevents the growth or actually destroys members of another species is called
    antibiosis

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