What do we know about antiant people from the stone circle at nabta playa?
they had extremely sophisticated astronomical knowlage coded into ledgends
What is the significance of the line going south at nabta playa?
the southern horizon ws used to locate constellations.
what is the norths significance at the stone cirlce
Points to the cirumploar stars which ere concidered immortal.
What is the significane of the east and west lines at the stone circle?
Gave the time of year for the seasons which was usfull for agriculture.
WHat is the significance of the NE and SE lines respectivly at nabta playa
the summer solstice sun rise/the winter solsice sun rise. these also showed the longest and shortest days of the year.
What do the 6 stones represent?
the 3 southern ones represent orions belt while the others represent the shoulders and head stars of orion.
What is a Boucranion?
An ox skull used as a symbol against death in burial sites. not "the place of death" but "place of life".
WHat is Bougonia?
Ritual blow flies in egypt. where a dead animal carcass is locked in an enclosure and after ten days, flies which came from the carcass swarm out. life comes from death was the message.
WHy was the number 10 sacred?
IT was believed that you became alive during fertilization and were ten onths old when born from the womb.
What was special about the burial practices at nagada?
The bodies were laid parallel with the flow of the nile.Feet facing west while the head of the bod was in the north. the people belived this would carry them to the after life.
What are the two crowns of egypt and what was there meaning?
The red crown was ruller of lower egpt while the white crown was ruller of upper egypt.
When were the two crowns of egypt combined and who was the first to ware it?
Dynasty one (unification of egypt) king den.
WHat does the name Hierakonpolis stand for?
the city of the falcon
what is the egyptian name for hierakonpolis
When and where was the city hierakonpolis the capital of egypt.
3,500bc in upper egypt
Where do we find the first mummy?
hierakonpolis in 3500 bc
What body parts were wrapped during the early stages of mummification?
only the hands and mouth.
What is a coprolite and what did we discover about them?
petrified human waste from which we discovered that the egyptians did not eat meat (Thanks to A&M LOL)
Where was tomb 100 said to be found?
Explain the differences in the boats of egypt and mesopotamia
Bannana boats are egyptian while black boats with jetting ends are mesopotamian.
Where were the first hieroglyphics use?
egyptian name for gerza?
What are some difference between Mesopotamian and Nilotic?
Maces and Call sign(circular in egypt, square arms in mesopotmia)
What are some egyptian things that are actually mesopotamian?
White crown, rosette, square base for pyramids, architecture
What is the city of abydos also known as?
What type of people were buried at abydos?
kings and important members of society
what did the canyons symbolize at abydos(abju)?
where the dead went in their afterlives.
how were the kings buried at abju?
simple underground funeral enclosures where the living could present precious items for the king to recieve through a false dore.
Who was Bat?
the goddess was represented by a divine cow with horns that curve inward and a human face.can be seen at the top of the narmer palette.
Who was min?
the predynastic god of cattle, desert, and fertility. Shown as a male who loved lettuce "lord of lettuce" and always had an erect penis.
who was Hor?
God of sky, war and protection. He is the patron diety of Nekhen (hierakonpolis) and is the falcon god.
as the falcon of the horizon is similar to the gd ra horus in that he represents the sun's journey from horizon to horizon. he is a combinatin of the gods horus and ra. horus is the god of sky and ra the god of the sun so ra horahty is the god of the rising sun.
Who is sekhmet?
Sekhmet was the goddess of medicin depicted as a lioness or a woman with the head of a lioness. red was significant to her identity. DEITY OF SURGEONS
who is Seshat?
goddess of wisdom, knowledge, and writing. can find true north and was in charge of aligning the pyramids with the stars. seen as wearing a panther skin dress and a star headdress. female counter part of djehuty
WHo is Djehuty and what is another name for him?
Thoth. seen as a man with the head of an idis, a sacred bird. The god of wisdom. is present at the final judgment to weigh heart.
Who is seth?
Seth was the god of the desert, chaos, military and storms.
how is the god seth depicted?
a man with the face of an animal most likly an anteater.
Who was seths adversary?
Horus and some kings used seth in their serekh instead of horus
What is another name for the god apep?
Who is Apep (apophis)
The serpent demon, god of darkness and chaos and personifcation of all evil. he is the enemy of ra.
Who is ausir (osiris)
The god of the afterlife. in th afterlife kings are said to govern as the incarnation of ausir (osiris). he holds the symbols of supreme power, the flail and crook.
How is Osiris seen?
a man with a beard wearing white mummy wrappings. he has the white crown surrounded by feathers.
Who is another name for Osiris?
WHo is matt?
goddess of balance, justice judges weather the king is keeping balance and justice.
WHat is significant of tomb U-J?
we find signs of possible human sacrifice aswell as some of the first hieroglyphics. specificly one with two trigles meaning outback or hill country.
during what time period is Tomb U-238?
3800 bc, pre-mesopotamian
when is the Archaic period?
Follows the unification lower and upper egypt in 3100 bc.
which dynasties are included in the archaic period?
dynasties 1 and 2
how long did the archaid period last?
from the protodynastic period to about 2686bc ( the beginning of the old kingdom)
when was the protodynastic period and what are others names for it?
also known as dynasty 0 or naqada III. 3200 to 3000 bc.
what is happing during the protodynasti period?
the process of the state formation from naqada II is highly visible with named kings.
What two figures are important in Dynasty 0
scorion king from 3250BC and the god Menes.
Why are the scorpion king and the god menes important figures during Dynasty 0?
was one of the first true kings and wore the white crown with the scorpion macehead. th god that united upper and lower egypt
Which crown did Narmer ware during dynasty 1?
he wore both but seperatly.
When did dynasty 2 end?
who was a famous ruler of dynasty 2?
What does Mastaba mean?
bench. it is also the simple rectangular structre in which a king is buried.
What was the Palace facade's stucture like?
were built to reflect light and catch the eye. They were not flat but had recesess to creat shadows that caught the eye.
What is a serekh?
the earliest form used to set apart the royal name."procamation"
discribe the serekh
a rectangle with horus falcon on top.the rectangle looks like the palace fascade with shadows and such.
what is a Cartouche?
the symbol of royalty. signifies the king's power over everything the sun encircled on its daily course.
how did the cartouche look?
an oblong cirlce witha a base line contianing the kings name.
What is a palette and how was it used?
used by men usually to crush pigments to use as war paints. see famous narmer palette.
what is another palette other than narmer's.
Hunter's palette which is associated with boomerang, tails on the back of men and heather/horns on the head.
What is at saqqara?
1st step pyramid and many mostabas with subsidary burials
who is Netcheri Khet
another name for king Djoser
What was Imhotep Huni?
Hebsed Festival (you know from reading)
Imhotep was around for which dynasty?
who was Imhotep?
the high priest/ architect for djoser. He designed the step pyramid
What were some of Imhotep's achievments in medicine?
Djehuty who was said to havediscovered numbers, writing, and astronomy.
when was the 4th dynasty?
2500's - 2400's
What did king Snefru do?
build bent and red pyramid
what is significant about dahshur?
bent and red pyramids were located here
Who built the great pyramid?
Khufu was the son of who? and how was he depicted later kingdoms?
son of snefru and was seen as cruel in later kingdoms
what is a giza?
the three famous pyramids
Who/what is osiris,
scary guy, demon, at the entrails of the gods.
who is khafra?
son of khufu who built the 2nd pyramid at giza and joined the two faiths of ra and osiris
what did Menkaure do?
buit the smallest of the 3 pyramids at giza and buit smal pyramids for his wives.
who is the sun of khafra?
what did Djedefre do?
built pyramid at abu rowash, 100ft. above giza
how might djedefre obtain the throne?
may have married widow of kawab.
when was dynasty 5?
WHo is unas (wenis)?
rabbit king who is said to be sahu(osiris) coming to eat the entrails of the gods.
WHat does mer mean?
chisel and to make love
what does the Rhyt bird symbolize?
the different people under a ruler's rign and control. peoples of larWh
What is "fefi"?
What does Akhet mean?
horizon aka land of light to egytians
What does Peret mean?
everything grows. the november month when the nile waters recededs and planting begins
What does Gereh mean?
darkness or the mountains of darkness
What are are two things that are must knows for 3800bc
Bird goddess at nagada is known for raised arms. tomb u-238 at abydos had red vase (red and white called C-ware)
what are four things to know for 3500 bc?
Chage to buff colored pottery called D-ware (mesopotamian influcence. Heiroglyphics come to be. first mummy found. hor is the first national god (first temple to hor built)
What 3 things must be known about 3250BC
tomb UJ (abydos, royal tomb, ivory scepter, pottery with scorpion and butterfly, hieroglyphics, scorpion king), Time of dynasty 0. Ka, Iri,Hor are all kings
What four things must be known about 2686BC
End of the second dynasty and the start of a whole new period and dynasty. transfer of power to king djoser, step pyramid, and huni is the last ruer of the 3rd dynasty (built 40 differnet step pyramdids.
Who is manetho,
manetho was a third century egyptian priest? wrote the turin cananon.
What is the turin cananon?
the history of egypt writin in greek by manetho in 300bc
who is herodotus?
greek historian who said he was taken to a cell with records of kings and was givin a description of how the sun would change in position over time. sometimes a lier
what two types of technology did the antiants have that is surprising
ability to cut granit and a very reliable calender system.