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2011-12-12 15:13:35
Bone anatomy

Bone anatomy
Show Answers:

  1. Compare and contrast the anatomy of a long bone and a flat bone:
    • Long Bones
    • 1. Outer Bone: collegen
    • 2. Inner bone: osteogenic
    • 3. Epiphysis, at the head, Diaphysis at the shaft.

    • Flat Bone
    • 1. Outer bone: compact
    • 2. Inner Bone: spongy bone, trabeculae
    • 3. Outer bone: compact encloses the spongy bone
  2. what are the two main types bone?
    compact and spongy
  3. Bone is made up of _____, ______, and ______.
    cells, fibers, ground substance
  4. which two substances of which bone is made up, make up the matrix?
    cells and fibers
  5. Describe the composition of bone matrix:
    • 1/3 of maxtrix is organic: collagen and glycoproteins
    • Fxn: gives flexiblity
    • 2/3 of matrix is inorganic: Hydroxyapetite molecule (calcium phosphate) is 85% and 15% calcium carbonate and other minerals
    • Fxn: provides strength and support
  6. what is marrow?
    soft tissue found in the marrow cavitity of long bones
  7. list and describe the two types of marrow:

    what is the location of the two types of marrow:
    • Red: produces red, white, and platelet blood cells. Found mostly in children
    • Yellow: mostly fat cells, converted from red marrow. Found in adults. yellow can be converted back to red, in animia

    Location:in the marrow cavity of bones
  8. thin calcified plates, that adds strength to overall structure without adding weight are called: _____ also known as "little spines"
  9. the part of the epiphysisal plate that faces the main cavitiy is called _____
  10. List the zones of metaphysis, superficial to deep:
    • 1. reserve cartilage: hyaline cartilage, chrondrocytes
    • 2. proliferation: chrondrocytes multiply, and arrage in columns
    • 3.hypertrophy: chrondrocytes being to hypertrophy (enlarge), become engulfed in lacunae
    • 4. calcification: minerals deposited, calcify the cartliage
    • 5. deposition: chrondrocytes die, create channels, blood vessels and marrow invade, osteoblasts build bone, and osteoclasts remove calcified cartliage.
  11. bone ______ is similar to the process of intramembranous ossification.
  12. what are the two main steps of bone remodeling? What is occuring at each step?
    • 1. Deposition: osteoblast builds bone at the stress point, so there is more bone mass.
    • 2. reabsorbtion: osteoclasts remove matrix not used
  13. why do childern have smoother bones than adults?
    adults bear more weight, and muscle strain, so there is more stress in the adults bones, which creates lines
  14. Put the following steps of bone healing in order, then describe what is occuring at each step: hard callus formation, bone remodeling, hematoma formation, soft callus formation.
    • 1. hematoma formation: Blood clots, capillary and cells invade the clot converting it to a fiborous mass called granulation tissue
    • 2. soft callus formation: deposition of collagen and fibrocartilage converts granulation tissue into a soft callus
    • 3. hard callus formation: Osteoblasts deposit a temporary boney collar around the fracture to unite the broken pieces, becomes a "splint" 4-6 weeks
    • 4. bone remodeling: small bone fragments removed by osteoclasts, while osteoblasts deposit spongy bone, then convert it to compact bone. 3-4 months, buldge
  15. the disorder that is described as the loss of bone density, often brittle and break easily break, and bones and porous is called:
  16. the disorder that is described as a curveature of the spine, to the side where the sholders look uneven is called:
  17. the disorder that is described as the superior curveature of the spine as a result of old age is known as :
  18. the disorder that is described as curveature of the spine as a result of weight that pulls the spine forward due to pregnacy of obesity is called
  19. Cartilage growth from within, by the multiplication of chrondrocytes and depsoition of new matirx in the interior (zones of metaphysis, bone enlongation) is called:
    interstitial growth
  20. When repairing a bone fracture, in which stage do osteogenic cells become chondroblasts and produce patches of fibrocartilage?

    a. conversion to hard callus
    b. remodeling
    c. formation of hematoma and granulation tissue
    d. formation of soft callus
  21. Bones continually grow throughout life in diameter and thickness in a process called:
    appositional growth
  22. The prececursor of bone in fetal developement that develops connective tissue, in the middle is called:
  23. Outline the general process of Intramembranous Ossification:
    • 1. embryonic connective tissue condenses, dense supply of blood capillaries, mesenchyme enlarge, differentiate into osteogenic cells, form trabeculae.
    • 2. Osteogenic cells differentate into osteoblasts, cells deposit soft collagenous tissue, calcium phosphate is deposited, osteoblasts become trapped in matrix, now become osteocytes.
    • 3. osteoblasts contiune deposit minerals, produce boney trabeculae, osteoclasts resorb, remodel to form marrow cavity.
    • 4. trabecluea at surface calcify, converting to compact bone to produce flat bones
  24. The cartilage of the epiphyseal plate is generally consumed by which age? (0.5pts)

    2 years
    early teens
    early twenties
    mid thirties
    early twenties
  25. The conversion of cartilage to bone at the metaphysis occurs during which process?

    appositional growth
    intramembranous ossification
    bone/fracture repair
    bone remodeling
    interstitial growth
    interstitial growth
  26. The flat bones of the skull are developed via which process?

    intramembranous ossification
    bone elongation
    appositional growth
    endochondrial ossification
    intramembranous ossification
  27. The inorganic matter of bone tissue is primarily __________, which provides __________ to bone.

    osteogenic cells; stem cells
    collagen and glycoproteins; flexibility
    hydroxyapatite and other minerals; structural support
    bone marrow; blood cells
    blood vessels and nerves; nourishment
    hydroxyapatite and other minerals; structural support
  28. The organic matter of bone tissue matrix is made primarily of _________, which provides __________ to bone.

    collagen and glycoproteins; flexibility
    blood vessels and nerves; nourishment
    osteogenic cells; stem cells
    hydroxyapatite and other minerals; structural support
    bone marrow; blood cells
    collagen and glycoproteins; flexibility
  29. _____________ are bone forming cells, whereas _____________ are bone dissolving cells.

    Osteoblasts; osteoclasts
    Osteoclasts; osteoblasts
    Osteocytes; osteoclasts
    Osteogenic cells; osteoclasts
    osteoblasts; osteoclasts
  30. List three bones that would form by intramembranous ossification:
    clavicle, skull,
  31. Outline the general process of endchondral ossification:
    • 1. mesenchyme develops into a body of hyaline cartilage surrounded by perichondrium
    • 2. boney collar (periosteum) is formed by ostoblasts
    • 3. chondrocytes die, forming what will eventually be marrow cavity
    • 4. Matrix in middle of bone calcifies
    • 5. blood vessels invade marrow cavity
    • 6. osteoblasts form from newly arrving stem cells
    • 7. ostoblasts build bone
    • 8. osteoclasts remove cartilage debris.
  32. List bones that form from endochondral ossification:
    vertebrae, ribs, sternum, scapula, pelvic girdle, and bones of the limbs
  33. Which spinal curvature is characterized by developmental thoracic curvature?

    a. scoliosis
    b. lordosis
    c. kyphosis
    d. osteoporosis
  34. Endochondrial ossification:

    a. produces flat bones of the skull
    b. involves bone formation directly from condensing mesenchyme
    c. is bone formation from a cartilage template
    d. results in intramembranous bone
  35. Bone dissolving cells found on the bone surface are called:

    a. osteogenic cells
    b. osteoclasts
    c. osteoblasts
    d. osteocytes
  36. Spongy bone formation includes a honeycomb formation of structures known as:

    a. trochanter
    b. tubercle
    c. trabeculae
    d. translucent cartlitage
  37. The fibrous layer of collagen surrounding the exterior of bone is called:

    a. pericondrium
    b. endosteum
    c. endomysium
    d. periosteum
  38. the region of transistion from cartilage to bone is called:

    a. epiphyseal plate
    b. perichondrium
    c. periosteum
    d. metaphysis
  39. The presence of an epiphyseal plate means:

    a. the bone is dead
    b. the bone is increasing in width
    c. the bone is increasing in length
    d. the bone can no longer grow
  40. Which of the following is a mature bone cell that appears to be responsible for the overall supervision of bone maintenance?

    A) osteogenic cells
    B) osteoblasts
    C) osteocytes
    D) endosteum cells
    E) osteoclasts
  41. Which large multinucleate cells found in bones secrete enzymes to reabsorb matrix?

    A) osteoclasts
    B) osteocytes
    C) osteoblasts
    D) osteoprogenitors
    E) chondrocytes
  42. Immature bone cells that are largely responsible for building boney matrix are called ________________.

    A) osteoclasts
    B) osteocytes
    C) osteoblasts
    D) osteoprogenitors
    E) chondrocytes
  43. Blood cells develop in which region of a bone?

    A) epiphysis
    B) diaphysis
    C) yellow marrow
    D) red marrow
    E) epiphyseal plate
  44. In which of the histological zones of a developing long bone would you find osteoclasts?

    A) zone of cell proliferation
    B) zone of bone deposition
    C) zone of calcified cartilage
    D) zone of cell hypertrophy
  45. Which bone develops by intramembranous ossification?

    A) vertebrae
    B) cranium
    C) pelvis
    D) humerus
    E) femur
  46. The first step in making a long bone such as the femur is

    A) primary marrow space forms.
    B) chondrocytes in metaphysis calcify.
    C) chondrocytes in metaphysis hypertrophy.
    D) hyaline cartilage model is formed.
    E) secondary ossification.
  47. Which of the following is not one of the steps of bone fracture healing?

    A) hematoma formation
    B) formation of granulation tissue
    C) callus formation
    D) remodeling
    E) All of the above are stages in fracture healing.
  48. The shaft of the long bone is called the:
  49. The head of a long bone is called the:
  50. A covering at the joint surface of the bone is called:
    articular cartilage
  51. the bone feature that lines the inside of the marrow cavity is called the:
  52. the bone feature that covers the external surface of the bone is called the:
  53. Stem cells of bones, that become osteoblasts are called:
    ostogenic cells
  54. Bone forming cells are called:
  55. Bone cells that were former osteoblasts that sit inside lacunae, and extend into the canaliculli to communicate, and pass nurtirents and wates, and are criticle in bone remolding is called:
  56. Bone cells that are multinucleate, and are involved in bone dissolving and bone reabosorbtion of minerals are called: