Chapter 13 Trace Minerals

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  1. Discuss Osteoporosis
    A loss of bone:

    1. Type I -- a loss of spongy bone, produces sudden breaks

    2. Type II -- a slow loss of both compact and spongy bone
  2. Discuss Factors Affecting Osteoporosis
    • age
    • sex
    • race
    • activity
    • smoking
    • alcohol
    • nutrition
  3. Compare ferrous and ferric iron
    ferrous: iron with a +2 charge

    ferric: iron with a +3 charge
  4. Discuss Fe
    • Iron:
    • aids electron transport proteins
    • it's in hemoglobin and myoglobin
    • it is required for making amino acids, hormones, and neurotransmitters
    • Mucosal Ferritin: can store iron in intestinal cells

    deficiency: causes anemia, restlessness, fatigue, headaches, feeling cold, or pica (crave unusual substances)

    toxicity: (6 x RDA) = weakness, hair loss, joint pain, enlarged liver, impotence

    good sources: meat and green vegetables

    iron absorption improved by: vitamin C, organic acids, sugar

    iron absorption inhibited by: fiber, calcium, phosphorous, additive EDTA and tannic acid (tea, chocolate, etc.)
  5. Describe Hemachromatosis
    a genetic defect in which the intestine excessively absorbs iron. It leads to arthirtis, loss of body hair, amenhorrea, impotence, heart failure, and liver cancer.
  6. Discuss Zn

    - required by over 100 enzymes

    - participates in enteropancreatic circulation (absorbed from the intestines, to the blood stream, and travles to the pancreas, pancrease puts it into enzymes, and squirts enzymes into intestines)

    can be stored with a protein called metallothionein

    transported around the body by albumin

    deficiency: slow growth, decreases pancreatic function, thyroid function, and immune system function, and vitamin A decreases (metabolism of Vit-A)

    Toxicity (50 mg) : produces atherosclerosis and degeneration of cardiac muscle

    good sources: meat, eggs, whole grains.
  7. Describe I

    required for Thyroid hormones (controls energy level in the body)

    deficiency: goiter (enlarged thyroid), fatigue, weight gain

    toxicity (1100 micrograms): goiter

    good sources: seafood, iodized salt, dairy, and bread
  8. Discuss Cu

    required by enzymes that deal with oxygen radicals

    deficiency: causes anemia, slow growth, slow metabolism

    toxicity (10mg): vomiting, diarrhea, and liver damange

    good sources: beans, peas, grains, nuts, seafood
  9. Discuss Mn

    required by enzymes in metabolism

    deficiency: causes slow growth

    toxicity (11mg): causes brain disorder

    good sources: nuts, grains, and leafy vegetables
  10. Discuss F

    strengthens bones and teeth

    deficiency: tooth decay

    toxicity (10mg) tooth discoloration, itching, nausea, diarrhea and chest pain

    good sources: water and seafood
  11. Discuss Cr

    required for carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. and it works with insulin

    deficiency: diabetes-like symptoms

    toxicity: causes nose bleeds, headaches, dizziness, fatigue, and liver failure

    good sources: meats, whole grains, nuts and cheese
  12. Discuss Se

    helps prevent the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids

    helps activate thyroid hormones

    deficiency: causes heart disease

    toxicity (400 micrograms): produces vomiting, diarrhea, hair loss, and skin and nervous system damage

    good sources: meat and grains
  13. Discuss Mo

    requrired by various enzymes in the body

    deficiency: unknown

    toxicity (2mg): causes reproductive problems, kidney damage, and gout-like symptoms

    good sources: grains, milk, liver and legumes
  14. Know some symptoms of Pb Toxicity:
    • poor coordination
    • poor hearing
    • poor concentration and memory
    • learning disabilities
    • slow growth and reaction time
    • behavior problems
    • anemia
    • high blood pressure and seizures
  15. Bone Meal
    • ground up bone
    • calcium is poorly absorbed
    • have Pb in them
  16. Kelp and Nori:
    • seaweeds
    • high in iodine
    • eat them in a salad
    • has small amounts of arsenic and carcinogens
  17. Super Blue green Algae:
    freeze dried pond scum
Card Set:
Chapter 13 Trace Minerals
2011-10-07 04:32:38
Trace Minerals

Test 3: Chapter 13 Trace Minerals Review
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