Block 2 Med Term

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Block 2 Med Term
2011-10-06 23:23:32
Med Term Block

Medical Terminology for Block 2
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  1. Cerebrum (largest part of the brain)

    Cerebrum (largest part of
    the brain)

    Cerebrum (largest part of
    the brain)

    Cerebrum (largest part of
    the brain)
  2. Cerebellum (little brain)
  3. Skull
  4. Entire brain
  5. Sensation
  6. Ganglion (knot)
  7. Glue
  8. Knowing
  9. Movement
  10. Word or phrase
  11. Meninges (membranes)
    • Mining/o
    • meningi/o
  12. Spinal cord or bone marrow
  13. Stupor or sleep
  14. Nerve
  15. Exaggerated fear or sensitivity
  16. Speech
  17. Carry or bear
  18. Mind
    • Phren/o
    • Psych/o
    • Thym/o
  19. Split
  20. Body
  21. Sleep
    • Somn/o
    • Somn/i
    • Hypn/o
  22. Spine (thorn)
  23. Vertebra
    • Spondyl/o
    • Vertebr/o
  24. 3D or solid
  25. Order or coordination
  26. Thalamus (a room)
  27. Tone or tension
  28. Place
  29. Ventricle (belly or pouch)
  30. Down
  31. Weakness
  32. Seizure
  33. Condition of abnormal impulse toward
  34. Slight paralysis
  35. Paralysis
  36. Line brain ventricles
    Ependymal cells
  37. Wrap axons, do myelination
  38. Support capillaries
  39. Engulf invading microorganisms and dead tissues
    Microglial cells
  40. 3-8 on Glascow Coma Scale (for brain injury)=
    severe trauma
  41. 9-12 on Glascow Coma Scale (for brain injury)=
    moderate trauma
  42. 13-15 on Glascow Coma Scale (for brain injury)=
    slight trauma
  43. Lack of order in movements
  44. Brain and Spinal Cord
    Central Nervous System
  45. Portion of the CNS contained within the cranium
  46. Largest portion of the brain; divided into right and left halves, known as cerebral hemispheres, which are connected by a bridge of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum; lobes are named after the skull bones they underlie
  47. Anterior section of each cerebral hemisphere; responsible for voluntary muscle movement and personality
    Frontal Lobe
  48. Portion posterior to the frontal lobe; responsible for sensations such as pain, temperature, and touch
    Parietal Lobe
  49. Portion that lies below the frontal lobe; responsible for hearing, taste, and smell
    Temporal Lobe
  50. Portion posterior to the parietal and temporal lobes; responsible for vision
    Occipital Lobe
  51. Outer layer of the cerebrum consisting of gray matter; responsible for higher mental functions (cortex=bark)
    Cerebral Cortex
  52. Each of two gray matter nuclei deep within the brain; responsible for relaying sensory information to the cortex
    Thalamus/ Diencephalon
  53. Convolutions (mounds) of the cerebral hemisphers
  54. Shallow grooves that separate gyri
  55. Deep grooves in the brain
  56. Portion of the brain located below the occipital lobes of the cerebrum; responsible for control and coordination of skeletal muscle
  57. Region of the brain that serves as a relay between the cerebrum, cerebellum, and spinal cord; responsible for breathing, heart rate, and body temperature; the three levels are the mesencephalon (midbrain), pons, and medulla oblongata
  58. Series of interconnected cavities within the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem filled with cerebrospinal fluid
  59. Plasma-like clear fluid circulating in and around the brain and spinal cord
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  60. Column of nervous tissue from the brainstem through the vertebrae; responsible for nerve conduction to and from the brain and the body
    Spinal Cord
  61. Three membranes that cover the brain and psinal cord, consisting of the dura mater, pia mater, and arachnoid mater
  62. Nerves that branch from the central nervous system including nerves of the brain (cranial nerves) and spinal cord (spinal nerves)
    Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
  63. 12 pairs of nerves arising from the brain
    Cranial Nerves
  64. 31 pairs of nerves arising form the spinal cord
    Spinal Nerves
  65. Nerves that conduct impulses from body parts and carry sensory information to the brain; also called afferent nerves (ad = toward; ferre = carry)
    Sensory Nerves
  66. Nerves that conduct motor impulses from the brain to muscles and glands; also called efferent nerves (e = out; ferre = carry)
    Motor Nerves
  67. Nerves that carry involuntary impulses to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and various glands
    Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
  68. Control center for the ANS located below the thalamus (diencephalon)
  69. Division of the ANS that is concerned with preparing the body in stressful or emergency situation
    Sympathetic Nervous System
  70. Division of the ANS that is most active in ordinary conditions; it counterbalances the effects of the sympathetic system by restoring the body to a restful state after a stressful experience
    Parasympathetic Nervous System
  71. Impairment because of localized brain injury that affects the understanding, retrieving, and formulating of meaningful and sequential elements of language, as demonstarted by an inability to use or comprehend words; occurs as a result of stroke, head trauma, or disease
    Aphasia/ Dysphasia
  72. A general term referring to level of decreased consciousness with varying responsiveness; a common method of assessment is the Glasgow Coma Scale
  73. A state of mental confusion caused by disturbances in cerebral function; the many causes include fever, shock, and drug overdose (deliro = to draw the furrow awry when plowing, to go off the rails)
  74. An impairment of intellectual function characterized by memory loss, disorientation, and confusino (dementio = to be mad)
  75. Loss or impairment of muscle function
    Motor deficit
  76. Loss of impairment of sensation
    Sensory deficit
  77. Pain along the course of a nerve
  78. Temporary or permanent loss of motor control
  79. Defective (flabby) or absent muscle control caused by a nerve lesion
    Flaccid paralysis
  80. Stiff and awkward muscle control caused by a central nervous system disorder
    Spastic paralysis
  81. Partial paralysis of the right or left half of the body
  82. Pain that follows the pathway of teh sciatic nerve, caused by compression or trauma of the nerve or its roots
  83. Sudden, transient disturbances in brain function resulting from an abnormal firing of nerve impulses; may or may not be associated with convulsion
  84. To pull together; type of seizure that causes a series of sudden, involuntary contractions of muscles
  85. Fainting
  86. Evoking a response by touching
    Tactile stimulation
  87. Increased sensitivity to stimulation such as touch or pain
  88. Abnormal sensation of numbness and tingling without objective cause
  89. Any of many types of loss of neurologic function involving interpretation of sensory information
  90. Inability to judge the form of an object by touch (e.g. a key from a coin)
  91. Inability to locate a sensation properly, such as an inability to locate a point touched on the body
  92. Disease of structural changes in the brain resulting in an irreversible deterioration that progresses from forgetfulness and disorientation to loss of all intellectual functions, total disability, and death
    Alzheimer Disease
  93. Condition of progressive deterioration of motor nerve cells resulting in total loss of voluntary muscle control; symptoms advance from muscle weakness in the arms and legs., to the muscles of speech, swallowing, and breathing, to total paralysis and death; also known as Lou Gehrig disease
    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
  94. Condition of motor dysfunction caused by damage to the cerebrum during development or injury at birth; characterized by partial paralysis and lack of muscle coordination
    Cerebral palsy (CP)
  95. Disorder resulting from a change within one or more blood vessels of the brain
    Cerebrovascular disease
  96. Hardening of arteries of the brain
    Cerebral arteriosclerosis
  97. Condition of lipid (fat) buildup within the blood vessels of the brain (ather/o = fatty [lipid] paste)
    Cerebral atherosclerosis
  98. Dilation of a blood vessel in the brain
    Cerebral aneurysm
  99. Presence of a stationary clot in a blood vessel of the brain
    Cerebral thrombosis
  100. Obstruction of a blood vessel in the brain by an embolus transported through the circulation
    Cerebral embolism
  101. Damage to the brain caused by cerebrovascular disease, such as occlusion of a blood vessel by a thrombus or embolus (ischemic stroke) or intracranial hemorrhage after rupture of aneurysm (hemorrhagic stroke)
    Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) Stoke
  102. Brief episode of loss of blood flow to the brain, usually cuased by a partial occlusion that results in temporary neurologic deficit (impairment); often precedes a CVA
    Transient ischemic attack (TIA)
  103. Inflammation of the brain
  104. Disorder affecting the central nervous system; characterized by recurrent seizures
  105. Stiffening-jerking; a major motor seizure involving all muscle groups; previously termed grand mal (big bad) seizure
    Tonic-clonic seizure
  106. Seizure involving a brief loss of consciousness without motor involvement; previously termed petit mal (little bad) seizure
    Absence seizure
  107. Seizure involving only limited areas of the brain with localized symptoms
    Partial seizure
  108. Tumor of glial cells graded according to degree of malignancy
  109. Protrusion of a degenerated or fragmented intervertebral disk so that the nucleus pulpous protrudes, causing compression on the nerve root
    Herniated disk
  110. Viral disease affecting the peripheral nerves, characterized by painful blisters that spread over the skin following the affected nerves, usually unilateral; also known as shingles
    Herpes Zoster
  111. Hereditary disease of the CNS characterized by bizarre, involuntary body movements and progessive dementia (choros = dance)
    Huntington chorea/ Huntington disease (HD)
  112. Abnormal accumulation of cerbrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain as a result of developmental anomalies, infection, injury, or tumor
  113. Benign tumor of the coverings of the brain (the meninges)
  114. Inflammation of the meninges
  115. Paroxysmal (sudden, periodic) attacks of mostly unilateral headache, often accompanied by disordered vision, nauseas, or vomiting, lasting hours or days and caused by dilation of arteries
    Migraine headache
  116. Disease of the CNS characterized by the demyelination (deterioration of the myelin sheath) of nerve fibers, with episodes of neurologic dysfunction (exacerbation) followed by recovery (remission)
    Multiple Sclerosis (MS)
  117. Autoimmune disease that affects the neuromuscular junction, causing a progressive decrease in muscle strength; activity resumes and strength returns after a period of rest
    Myasthenia Gravis
  118. Inflammation of spinal cord
  119. Sleep disorder characterized by a sudden, uncontrollable need to sleep, attacks of paralysis (cataplexy), and dreams intruding while awake (hypnagogic hallucinations)
  120. Congenital deformities of the brain and spinal cord caused by incomplete development of the neural tube, the embryonic structure that forms the nervous system
    Neural Tube Defects
  121. Defect in closure of the cephalic portion of the neural tube that results in incomplete development of the brain and bones of the skull; the most drastic neural tube defect usually results in a stillbirth
  122. Defect in development of the spinal column characterized by the absence of vertebral arches, often resulting in pouching of the meninges (meningocele) or of the meninges and spinal cord (meningomyelocele); considered to be th emost common neural tube defect
    Spina Bifida
  123. Condition of slow progressive degeneration in an area of the brainstem (substantia nigra) resulting in a decrease of dopamine; characterized by tremor, regidity of muscled, and slow movements (bradykinesia); usually occurs later in life
    Parkinson Disease (PD)
  124. Paralysis
  125. Paralysis of one side of the body
  126. Paralysis from the waist down
  127. Paralysis of all four limbs
  128. Inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord caused by a virus, often resulting in spinal and muscle deformity and paralysis (polio = gray)
  129. Inflammation involving two or more nerves, often caused by a nutritional deficiency, such as lack of thiamine
  130. Periods of breathing cessation (10 seconds of more) that occur during sleep, often causing snoring
    Sleep Apnea
  131. Diagnostic procedures used to evaluate the functions of the nervous system by recording the electrical signals produced in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves
    Electrodiagnostic procedures
  132. Record of the minute electrical impulses of the brain; used to identify neurologic conditions that affect brain function and level of consciousness
    Electroencephalogram (EEG)
  133. Record of minute electrical potentials (waves) that are extracted from ongoing EEG activity to diagnose auditory, visual, and sensory pathway disorders; also used to monitor the neurologic function of patients during surgery
    Evoked potentials
  134. Recording of various aspects of sleep (e.g. eye and muscle movement, respiration, and EEG patterns) to diagnose sleep disorders
  135. Introduction of a specialized needle into the spine in the lumbar region for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes, such as to obtain CSF for testing; also called spinal tap
    Lumbar Puncture (LP)
  136. Nonionizing imaging technique using magnetic fields and radiofrequency waves to visualize anatomic structures (esp soft tissue), such as the tissues of the brain and spinal cord
    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
  137. Magnetic resonance imaging of blood vessels to detect pathologic conditions, such as thrombosis and atherosclerosis
    Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)
  138. Magnetic resonance image of the head to visualize the vessels of the circle of Willis (common site of cerebral aneurysm, stenosis, or occlusion)
    Intracranial MRA
  139. Magnetic resonance image of the neck to visualize the carotid artery
    Extracranial MRA
  140. Radionuclide organ imaging
    Nuclear medicine imaging
  141. Scan combining nuclear medicine and computed tomography to produce images of the brain after the administration of radioactive isotopes
    Single-photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) brain scan
  142. Technique combining nuclear medicine and computed tomography to produce images of brain anatomy and corresponding physiology; used to study stroke, Alzheimer disease, epilepsy, metabolic brain disorders, chemistry of nerve transmissions in the brain, and so on; provides greater accuracy than SPECT, but is used less often because of cost and the limited availability of the radioisotopes
    Positron-emission Tomography (PET)
  143. X-ray imaging
  144. X-ray of blood vessels in the brain after intracarotid injection of contrast medium
    Cerebral angiogram
  145. Computed tomographic (x-ray) images of the head used to visualize abnormalities, such as brain tumors and malformations
    Computed Tomography (CT) of the head
  146. X-ray of the spinal cord obtained after intraspinal injection of contrast medium
  147. Test perfomed to observe the body's response to a stimulus
    Reflex testing
  148. Involuntary muscle contraction after percussion at a tendon indicating function; positive findings are either no reflex response or an exaggerated response to stimulus; numbers are often used to record responses
    0 = no response (absent reflex)
    1+ = diminished response
    2+ = normal response
    3+ = more brisk tan average response
    4+ = hyperactive response
    Deep Tendon Reflexes (DTR)
  149. Pathologic response to stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot; a postive sign is indicated when the toes dorsiflex (curl upward)
    Babinski sign/ Babinski reflex
  150. Image made by sending ultrasound beams through the skull to assess blood flow in intracranial vessels; used in the diagnosis and management of stroke and head trauma
    Transcranial Doppler Sonogram
  151. Incision and coring of the lining of the carotid artery to clear a blockage caused by the buildup of atherosclerotic plaque or a clot; an open procedure used to treat patients who are at risk for stroke
    Carotid Endarterectomy
  152. Excision of part of the skull to approach the brain
  153. Incision into the skull to approach the brain
  154. Removal of a herniated disk; often done percutaneously (per = through; cutaneous = skin)
  155. Minimally invasive techniques for diagnosis and treatment of disorders within blood vessels of the neck, brain, and spinal cord using specialized catheters inserted percutaneously (through the skin) into the femoral artery (in the groin) and guided by angiographic imaging to the treatment site; performed in a specialized angiographic lab by interventional neuroradiologists; common procedures are:
    -Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) with stent
    - Embolization (plugging) of intracranial aneurysms and vascular malformations
    Endovascular neurosurgery/ Interventional neuroradiology
  156. Excision of one or more laminae of the vertebrae to approach the spinal cord
  157. Flattened posterior portion of the vertebral arch
    Vertebral lamina
  158. Use of a microscope to dissect minute structures during surgery
  159. Surgical repair of a nerve
  160. Spinal fusion
  161. Treatment of malignancies, infections, and other diseases with chemical agents to destroy selected cells or impair their ability to reproduce
  162. Treatment of neoplastic disease using ionizing radiation to impede the proliferation of malignant cells
    Radiation therapy
  163. Radiation treatment to inactive malignant lesions using multiple, precise extermal radiation beams focused on a taret with the aid of a stereotactic frame and imaging such as CT, MRI, or angiography; used to treat inoperably brain tumors and other lesions
    Stereotactic/ Stereotaxic radiosurgery
  164. Mechanical device used to localize a point in space, targeting a precise site
    Stereotactic or stereotaxic frame
  165. Agent that relieves pain
  166. Agent that prevents or lessens convulsions
  167. Agent that induces sleep
  168. Emotional feeling or mood
  169. Significantly dulled emotional tone or outward reaction
    Flat affect
  170. A lack of interest or display of emotion
  171. A state of unresponsiveness to one's outside environment, usually including muscle rigidity, staring, and inability to communicate
  172. A persistent belief that has no basis in reality
  173. A person's false belief that he or she possesses great wealth, intelligence, or power
    Grandiose delusion
  174. A person's false belief that someone is plotting against him or her with intent to harm
    Persecutory delusion
  175. A restless, dissatisfied mood
  176. An exaggerated, unfounded feeling of well-being
  177. A false perception of the senses for which there is no reality; most commonly hearing or seeing things (alucinor = to wander in mind)
  178. The formation of thoughts or ideas, such as suicidal ideation (thoughts of suicide)
  179. State of abnormal elation and increased activity
  180. A psychologic condition in which anxiety is prominent
  181. A mental condition characterized by distortion of reality resulting in the inability to communicate or function within one's environment
  182. Thought that lacks clear processing or logical direction
    Thought disorder
  183. A disorder causing periodic disturbances in mood that affect concentration, sleep, activity, appetite, and social behavior; characterized by feelings of worthlessness, fatigue, and loss of interest
    • Major Depression
    • Major Depressive Illness
    • Clinical Depression
    • Major Affective Disorder
    • Unipolar Disorder
  184. A milder affective disorder characterized by chronic depression
  185. An affective disorder characterized by mood swings of mania and depression (extreme up and down states)
    Manic Depression/ Bipolar Disorde (BD)
  186. An affective disorder marked by episodes of depression that most often occur during the fall and winter and that remit in the spring
    Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)
  187. The most common anxiety disorder; characterized by chronic, excessive, uncontrollable worry about everyday problems; affects the ability to relax or concentrate, but does not usually interfere with social interactions or employment; physical symptoms include muscle tension, trembling, twitching, fatigue, headaches, nausea, and insomnia
    Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
  188. A disorder of sudden, recurrent attacks of intense feelings, including physical symptoms that mimic a heart attack (rapid heart rate, chest pain, shortness of breath, chills, sweating, and dizziness) with a general sense of loss of control or feeling that death is imminent; often progresses to agoraphobia
    Panic Disorder
  189. Exaggerated fear of a specific object or circumstances that causes anxiety and panic; name for the object or circumstance, such as agoraphobia (fear of the marketpalce), claustrophobia (fear of confinement), and acrophobia (fear of high places)
  190. A condition resulting from an extremely traumatic experience, injury, or illness that leaves the sufferer with persistent thoughts and memories of the ordeal; may occur after a war, violent personal assault, physical or sexual abuse, serious accident, or natural disaster; symptoms include feelings of fear, detachment, exaggerated startle response, restlessness, nightmares, and avoidance of anything or anyone who triggers the painful recollections
    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
  191. An anxiety disorder featuring unwanted, senseless obsessions accompanied by repeated compulsion; can interfere with all aspects of a person's daily life; for example, the thought that a door is not locked causing repeptitive checking to make sure it is locked, or thought that one's body has been comtaminated causing repetitibe washing
    Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
  192. A preoccupation with thoughts of disease and concern that one is suffering from a serious condition that persists medical reassurance to the contrary
  193. A developmental disability, commonly appearing during the first three years of life, resulting from a neurologic disorder affecting brain function, as evidenced by difficulties with verbal and nonverbal communication and an inability to relate to anything beyond oneself in social interactions; persons often exhibit body movements such as rocking and repetitive hand movements; persons commonly become preoccupied with observing parts of small objects or moving parts or with performing meaningless rituals
  194. A developmental disability characterized by difficulty understanding written or spoken words, sentences, or paragraphs that affects reading, spelling, and self-expression
  195. A dysfunction characterized by consistent hyperactivity, distractibility, and lack of control over impulses, which interferes with ability to function normally at school, home or work
    Attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
  196. A condition of sub-average intelligence characterized by an IQ of 70 or less, resulting in their inability to adapt to normal social activities
    Mental Retardation
  197. A sever disturbance in eating behavior caused by abnormal perceptions about one's weight, as evidenced by an overwhelming fear of becoming fat that results in a refusal to eat and body weight well below normal
    Anorexia nervosa
  198. An eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by efforts to limit digestions through induced vomiting, use of laxatives, or excessive exercise
    Bulimia nervosa
  199. Mental disorders resulting from abuse of substances such as drugs, alcohol, or other toxins, causing personal and social dysfunction; identified by the abused substance, such as alcohol abuse, amphetamine abuse, opiod (narcotic) abuse, and polysubstance abuse
    Substance Abuse Disorder
  200. A disease of brain chemistry causing a distorted cognitive and emotional perception of one's environment; symptoms include distortions of normal function (such as disorganized thought, delusions, hallucinations, and catatonic behavior), flat affect, apathy, and withdrawal from reality
  201. Electrical shock applied to the brain to induce convulsions; used to treat patients with severe depression
    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
  202. Use of specialized illuminating light boxes and visors to treat seasonal affective disorders
    Light therapy
  203. Treatment of psychiatric disorders using verbal and nonverbal interaction with patients, individually or in a group, employing specific actions and techniques
  204. Treatment to decrease or stop unwatned behavior
    Behavioral Therapy
  205. Treatment to change unwanted patterns of thinking
    Cognitive Therapy
  206. Medications used to treat mental illnesses (trop/o = a turning)
    Psychotropic drugs
  207. Drugs used to reduce anxiety
    Antianxiety agents/ Anxiolytic agents
  208. Agent that counteracts depression
  209. Drugs used to treat psychosis, esp schizophrenia
    Neuroleptic agents
  210. Agent that has a calming effect and quits nervousness