Pharyngeal Arch/Pouches

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
107049
Filename:
Pharyngeal Arch/Pouches
Updated:
2011-10-07 00:39:21
Tags:
Pharyngeal Arch Pouch Derivatives
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Description:
Med School Embryology - Pharyngeal Arches
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  1. What forms from the ectoderm germ layer?
    Epithelial lining of the EAM
  2. What forms from the neuroectoderm?
    Bones, cartilages and ligaments from pharyngeal arches
  3. What forms from the paraxial mesoderm germ layer?
    Muscles derived from the pharyngeal arch
  4. Where are the muscles of the eye and tongue derived from?
    • Eye: Preotic myotomes
    • Tongue: Occipital myotomes
  5. What forms from the endoderm germ layer?
    Pouch derivates
  6. What forms collectively from the endo/meso/ectoderm layers?
    Tympanic Membrane
  7. What skeletal elements are derived from pharyngeal arch 1 and what nerves are associated with them?
    • Nerve: V2 and V3
    • Skeletal Elements: Malleus, Incus, anterior malleus ligament and sphenomandibular ligament
  8. What muscles are derived from pharyngeal arch 1 and what nerves are associated with them?
    • Nerve: V2 and V3
    • Muscles: Mastication, mylohyoid, anterior digastric, tensor vali palatini and tensor tympani
  9. What skeletal elements are derived from pharyngeal arch 2 and what nerves are associated with them?
    • Nerve: Facial
    • Skeletal Elements: Stapes, styloid process, stylohyoid ligament, superior body of hyoid and lesser horn
  10. What muscles are derived from pharyngeal arch 2 and what nerves are associated with them?
    • Nerve: Facial
    • Muscles: Facial expression, stylohyoid, posterior digastric and stapedius
  11. What skeletal elements are derived from pharyngeal arch 3 and what nerves are associated with them?
    • Nerve: Glossopharyngeal
    • Skeletal Elements: Greater horn and inferior body of hyoid
  12. What muscles are derived from pharyngeal arch 3 and what nerves are associated with them?
    • Nerve: Glossopharyngeal
    • Muscle: Stylopharyngeus
  13. What skeletal elements are derived from pharyngeal arch 4 and 6 and what nerves are associated with them?
    • Nerve: Superior laryngeal (4) and recurrent laryngeal (6), both of X
    • Skeletal Elements: Laryngeal cartilages - thyroid, cricoid, arytenoid, triticeal, corniculate and cuneiform
  14. What muscles are derived from pharyngeal arch and what nerves are associated with them?
    • Nerve: Superior laryngeal (4) and recurrent laryngeal (6), both of X
    • Muscles: Pharyngeal muscles, levator vali palatini, palatoglossus, muscaularis uvalae, cricothryoid (4), intristic laryngeal mucsles and cricopharyngeus (6)
  15. What is associated with pharyngeal pouch 1?
    Eustachian tube and middle ear cavity
  16. What is associated with pharyngeal pouch 2?
    Crypts of palatine tonsils
  17. What is associated with pharyngeal pouch 3?
    • Dorsal: Inferior parathyroid
    • Ventral: Thymus
  18. What is associated with pharyngeal pouch 4?
    • Dorsal: Superior parathyroid
    • Ventral: Parafollicular cells of thyroid
  19. What is associated with pharyngeal pouch 5?
    Parafollicular cells of thyroid
  20. What is made from the 1st pharyngeal groove?
    External acoustic meatus
  21. What is the cervical sinus and what is located within it?
    • Depression which gets covered by the 2nd arch
    • Within it lie groove 2, 3, 4
  22. What does the 1st pharyngeal membrane become?
    Tympanic Membrane
  23. What swellings are formed by the first pharyngeal arch in relation to the developing face?
    • Cranial maxillary swelling
    • Caudal mandibular swelling
  24. What are the names of 2 first arch syndromes and what are they caused by?
    • Trecher Collins and Pierre Robin
    • Insufficient migration of neural crest cells into the 1st arch
    • Malformation of eyes, ears, mandible and palate
  25. What are auricular sinuses, pits or cysts caused by?
    • Duplication/reminants of the first pharyngeal groove
    • Pretty much, more than 1 external acoustic meatus
  26. What are brachial vestiges?
    • Abnormal cartilaginous/bony remnants of pharyngeal arch cartilages found under skin
    • Normally along SCM
  27. What are cervical cysts/sinuses?
    Pharyngeal grooves and cervical sinus reminants
  28. What does DiGeorge syndrome result from?
    • Abnormal development of 3rd/4th pharyngeal pouch
    • Symptom: No thymus/parathyroid glands, malformed external ears and cardiac issues

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