Pharmacology

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Author:
amgomez
ID:
107050
Filename:
Pharmacology
Updated:
2011-10-07 01:41:03
Tags:
Cardiovascular System drugs
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Description:
Therapeutic Uses
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  1. What is a therapeutic use of the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren (Tekturna)?
    Hypertension
  2. What are some of the therapeutic uses for the alpha/beta blocker carvedilol (Coreg)?
    • Treats hypertension
    • Treats heart failure along with digoxin, angiotensin-converting enzymes (ACE) inhibitors, and diuretics
    • Prolongs chance of survival following myocardial infarction
  3. What are some of the therapeutic uses for the aldosterone antagonist spironol
    actone (Aldactone)?
    • Treats hypertension
    • Treats symptoms of heart failure following myocardial infarction
  4. What are some of the therapeutic uses for the class IV/calcium channel blocker verapamil (Calan)?
    • Converts supraventricular tachycardia to a sinus rhythm
    • Slows rate of atrial fibrillation and flutter
    • Treats angina and hypertension
  5. What is a therapeutic use for the sympathomimetic drug dobutamine (Dobutrex)?
    Increases cardiac output in severe heart failure (short-term use only)
  6. What are some of the therapeutic uses for the angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) losartan (Cozaar)?
    • Treats hypertension
    • Prevents stroke
    • Manages diabetic nephropathy
  7. What are some of the therapeutic uses for the fibrate drug gemfibrozil (Lopid)?
    • Reduces high levels of plasma triglycerides
    • Reduces LDL cholesterol (less effectively than statins)
  8. What are some of the therapeutic uses for the calcium channel blocker (dihydropyridine) nifedipine (Adalat, Procardia)?
    • Treats mild to moderate hypertension
    • Treats stable (exertional) angina and variant (vasospastic) anginas
  9. What is a therapeutic use for the phosphodiesterase inhibitor drug milrinone (Primacor)?
    Short-term treatment of low cardiac output in heart failure
  10. What are some of the therapeutic uses for the centrally acting alpha2 agonist clonidine (Catapres)?
    • Hypertension
    • Severe pain relief (administered by epidural infusion)
    • Off-label uses: migraine headache (prevention); withdrawal from alcohol, opioids, and nicotine; dysmenorrheal and menopausal hot flashes; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children; Tourette's syndrome
  11. What are some of the therapeutic uses for the class IA/sodium channel blocker drugs quinidine (Apo-Quinidine, Novo-Quinidine) and procainamide (Pronestyl)?
    • Broad spectrum antidysrhythmics treat atrial fibrillation, supraventricular and ventricular tachycardias.
    • Quinidine is used more for long-term treatment while procainamide is used only for short-term treatment due to severe adverse effects.
  12. What are some of the therapeutic uses for the direct-acting vasodilator drug hydralazine (Apresoline)?
    • Moderate to severe hypotension
    • Hypertensive crisis (IV form)
    • Used with digitalis and other vasodilators to treat heart failure on a short-term basis
  13. What are some of the therapeutic uses for the class IC/sodium channel blockers flecainide (Tambocor) and propafenone (Rythmol)?
    • Treat serious supraventricular and ventricular tachydysrhythmias not controlled by other antidysrhythmics
    • Used long term for some supraventricular dysrhythmias
  14. What are some of the therapeutic uses for the class II/beta adrenergic blocker propranolol (Inderal)?
    • Management of cardiac tachydysrhythmias, such as atrial and ventricular tachycardia and tachycardia caused by exercise or emotion
    • Treats hypertension alone or along with other drugs, such as diuretics
    • Prevents pain from angina pectoris
    • Treatment to decrease mortality following myocardial infarction (MI)
    • Used for prophylaxis against migraine headaches
  15. What are some of the therapeutic uses for the beta adrenergic blockers atenolol (Tenormin) and metoprolol (Lopressor)?
    • Treats hypertension
    • Treats angina pectoris
    • Decreases mortality following myocardial infarction
    • Treats cardiac dysrhythmias (investigational use)
    • Treats heart failure
  16. What is a therapeutic use of the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren (Tekturna)?
    Hypertension
  17. What are some of the therapeutic uses for the alpha1 adrenergic blocker doxazosin (Cardura)?
    • Treats hypertension
    • Treats benign prostatic hypertrophy
  18. What are some of the therapeutic uses for the loop diuretic furosemide (Lasix)?
    • Treats pulmonary edema in heart failure
    • Treats edema caused by renal, hepatic, or cardiac failure not affected by other diuretics
    • Treats hypertension not controlled by other diuretics
  19. What are some of the therapeutic uses for the cardiac glycoside digoxin (Lanoxin)?
    • Treats mild to moderate hypertension
    • Treats stable (exertional) angina and variant (vasospastic) anginas
  20. What are some of the therapeutic uses for the nitrate drugs nitroglycerin (Nitrostat, Nitro-Dur, Nitro-Bid) and isosorbide dinitrate (Isordil)?
    • Treatment and prophylaxis of angina pectoris
    • Rapid-acting forms (only transmucosal tablets, translingual spray and sublingual tablets treat an angina attack)
    • Longer-acting forms, such as regular tablets, immediate release or sustained release tablets/capsules, are used to prevent attacks from occurring.
    • IV nitroglycerin is used for severe unstable angina attacks and to control blood pressure perioperatively and to treat heart failure after acute myocardial infarction.
  21. What are some of the therapeutic uses for the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin) drug simvastatin (Zocor)?
    • Reduces LDL and triglycerides
    • Increases HDL cholesterol
    • Recommended to reduce mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
  22. What are some of the therapeutic uses for the adrenergic neuron blocker reserpine (Serpalan, Sk-Reserpine)?
    Treats hypertension (not a first-line choice due to severe adverse effects)
  23. What are some of the therapeutic uses for the potassium-sparing diuretic drug spironolactone (Aldactone)?
    • Hypertension
    • Edema caused by heart failure
    • Cirrhosis of the liver
    • Nephrotic syndrome
    • Hypokalemia
  24. What are some of the therapeutic uses for the class IB/sodium channel blocker lidocaine (Xylocaine)?
    • IV: Controls only ventricular dysrhythmias caused by myocardial infarction, cardiac surgery or procedures, digoxin toxicity
    • Local: Provides local or regional anesthesia
  25. What are some of the therapeutic uses for the thiazide diuretic hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL)?
    • Used with other drugs, treats heart failure
    • Treats cirrhosis of the liver and renal failure
    • Treats hypertension
  26. What are some of the therapeutic uses for the class III/potassium channel blocker amiodarone (Cordarone)?
    • Manages life-threatening ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation that is resistant to other drugs
    • May treat some atrial dysrhythmias, such as atrial fibrillation
  27. What are some of the therapeutic uses for the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril (Capoten)?
    • Hypertension
    • Heart failure
    • Diabetic nephropathy

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