Anatomy & Physiology

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  1. What hormone is produced by the kidneys?
  2. What is ADH?
    • Antidiuretic Hormone
    • Produced by the posterir pituitary gland
    • Acts on DCT and collecting ducts to promote water reabsorption.
    • Increases ESF (extracellular fluid) osmolarity which pulls the water out of the DCT and collecting ducts
    • High ADH = little urine
    • Low ADH = polyuria (and then polydipsia)
  3. What is high urine volume called?
  4. What is excessive drinking called?
  5. Part of the kidney where everything enters and exits.
  6. Ureter begins at the...
    Renal Pelvis
  7. Bovine kidneys are different in that...
    • they are multilobar
    • the medullas are pyramid shaped
    • medullas empty into calyces (calyx singular)
    • medullas empty from renal papilla
  8. Adipose tissue surrounding kidney
    perirenal fat
  9. Kidneys are located outside the abdominal cavity which makes them...
  10. Nephron consists of...
    • Renal corpuscle
    • Proximal Convoluted Tubule
    • Loop of Henle
    • Distal Convoluted Tubule
  11. Renal Corpuscle consists of...
    • Bowman's Capsule
    • Glomerulus
    • Capsular space
  12. fluid filtered out of the blood and into the Bowman's capsule is called...
    Glomerular filtrate
  13. GFR is...
    • Glomerular filtration rate
    • How fast plasma is filtered
  14. GFR is altered by...
    • Blood flow and presure
    • ex. dehydration, blood loss, Medication that drops BP like anesthesia
    • Amount of urine production is based on GFR
  15. The "back door" of the nephron
    Proximal Convoluted Tubule
  16. Epithelium in the Proximal Convoluted Tubule is...
    Cuboidal w/ brush border
  17. Contents in the PCT are called...
    Tubular filtrate
  18. Loop of Henle epithelium is..
    • Cuboidas w/ brush border at descending portion
    • simple squamous at u-turn
    • cuboidal w/ NO brush border at ascending portion
  19. Distal Convolted Tubule responsible for...
    • Water retension - ADH
    • Potassium and acid/ base balance
  20. Kidneys need nerve supply to function?
  21. Creatinine
    • muscle byproduct (metabolic waste)
    • filters through glomerular filtration
    • doesn't filter well if BP is low
  22. Urea
    • Metabolic waste
    • not all is filtered out - BUN
    • filters through PCT
  23. Something the kidneys change to the active form
    vitamin D (from sun)
  24. What do Prostaglandins do for the kidneys
    maintain blood flow
  25. What drugs block Prostaglandins?
  26. What is a sign of endstage renal failure?
    kidneys cannot produce erythropoietin
  27. The basic mechanisms of the nephron
    • Filtration
    • Reabsorption
    • Secretion
  28. Renal corpuscle vs. other capillary beds
    • not true capillary bed, no O2 exchange
    • Higher BP
    • Larger Fenestrations
  29. Tubular Filtrate contains
    • Waste products
    • Sodium
    • Potassium
    • Magnesium
    • Glucose
    • Amino Acids
    • Chloride
    • Bicarbonate
    • Water
  30. Reabsorption
    the mechanism to get back substances needed for homeostasis
  31. Reabsorption happens...
    • through tubular epithelium or between cells (permeable junctions) then into perivascular capillaries
    • Passive transport - osmosis or diffusion
    • Active transport - req. ATP
  32. Sodium Cotransport in PCT
    • Na attaches to a protein for active transport
    • glucose and amino acids hitch a ride (passive)
  33. glucose spilled in urine
    • usually 100% is reabsorbed
    • Blood-glucose must be >180 for glucose in urine
    • normal blood-glucose 80-120g/dl
    • Diabetes Mellitus
  34. 70-75% of these ions are reabsorbed from filtrate
    • Na - Sodium
    • Chloride
    • Increased by Sympathetic nerves on cells, Angiotensin II
  35. Juxtaglomerular Cells
    • Cells tat produce Renin
    • triggered by low BP and low Sodium Chloride levels
  36. Macula Densa
    cells of the DCT that measure Na levels
  37. renin-angiotensin system (RAS)
    • Low BP / low sodium chloride levels
    • Renin is released
    • Renin finds angiotensinogen from liver in the BS
    • breaks it down into angiotensin I goes to lungs to be further broken down by
    • angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) into angiotensin II which is a vasoconstricter
    • Heart pumps harder to overcome "load" BP goes up
    • Also acts on CNS to raise thurst
    • acts on adrenal glands to produce aldosterone and ADH causing DCT and collecting ducts to allow water to be reabsorbed raising blood volume and BP
Card Set
Anatomy & Physiology
Exam II
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