Anatomy & Physiology
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What hormone is produced by the kidneys?
What is ADH?
- Antidiuretic Hormone
- Produced by the posterir pituitary gland
- Acts on DCT and collecting ducts to promote water reabsorption.
- Increases ESF (extracellular fluid) osmolarity which pulls the water out of the DCT and collecting ducts
- High ADH = little urine
- Low ADH = polyuria (and then polydipsia)
What is high urine volume called?
What is excessive drinking called?
Part of the kidney where everything enters and exits.
Ureter begins at the...
Bovine kidneys are different in that...
- they are multilobar
- the medullas are pyramid shaped
- medullas empty into calyces (calyx singular)
- medullas empty from renal papilla
Adipose tissue surrounding kidney
Kidneys are located outside the abdominal cavity which makes them...
Nephron consists of...
- Renal corpuscle
- Proximal Convoluted Tubule
- Loop of Henle
- Distal Convoluted Tubule
Renal Corpuscle consists of...
- Bowman's Capsule
- Capsular space
fluid filtered out of the blood and into the Bowman's capsule is called...
- Glomerular filtration rate
- How fast plasma is filtered
GFR is altered by...
- Blood flow and presure
- ex. dehydration, blood loss, Medication that drops BP like anesthesia
- Amount of urine production is based on GFR
The "back door" of the nephron
Proximal Convoluted Tubule
Epithelium in the Proximal Convoluted Tubule is...
Cuboidal w/ brush border
Contents in the PCT are called...
Loop of Henle epithelium is..
- Cuboidas w/ brush border at descending portion
- simple squamous at u-turn
- cuboidal w/ NO brush border at ascending portion
Distal Convolted Tubule responsible for...
- Water retension - ADH
- Potassium and acid/ base balance
Kidneys need nerve supply to function?
- muscle byproduct (metabolic waste)
- filters through glomerular filtration
- doesn't filter well if BP is low
- Metabolic waste
- not all is filtered out - BUN
- filters through PCT
Something the kidneys change to the active form
vitamin D (from sun)
What do Prostaglandins do for the kidneys
maintain blood flow
What drugs block Prostaglandins?
What is a sign of endstage renal failure?
kidneys cannot produce erythropoietin
The basic mechanisms of the nephron
Renal corpuscle vs. other capillary beds
- not true capillary bed, no O2 exchange
- Higher BP
- Larger Fenestrations
Tubular Filtrate contains
- Waste products
- Amino Acids
the mechanism to get back substances needed for homeostasis
- through tubular epithelium or between cells (permeable junctions) then into perivascular capillaries
- Passive transport - osmosis or diffusion
- Active transport - req. ATP
Sodium Cotransport in PCT
- Na attaches to a protein for active transport
- glucose and amino acids hitch a ride (passive)
glucose spilled in urine
- usually 100% is reabsorbed
- Blood-glucose must be >180 for glucose in urine
- normal blood-glucose 80-120g/dl
- Diabetes Mellitus
70-75% of these ions are reabsorbed from filtrate
- Na - Sodium
- Increased by Sympathetic nerves on cells, Angiotensin II
- Cells tat produce Renin
- triggered by low BP and low Sodium Chloride levels
cells of the DCT that measure Na levels
renin-angiotensin system (RAS)
- Low BP / low sodium chloride levels
- Renin is released
- Renin finds angiotensinogen from liver in the BS
- breaks it down into angiotensin I goes to lungs to be further broken down by
- angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) into angiotensin II which is a vasoconstricter
- Heart pumps harder to overcome "load" BP goes up
- Also acts on CNS to raise thurst
- acts on adrenal glands to produce aldosterone and ADH causing DCT and collecting ducts to allow water to be reabsorbed raising blood volume and BP
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