Pharmacology

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Author:
amgomez
ID:
107069
Filename:
Pharmacology
Updated:
2011-10-07 02:52:44
Tags:
Cardiovascular System Drugs
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Description:
Precautions
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  1. What factors increase the risk of side or adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient taking the aldosterone antagonist spironolactone (Aldactone)?
    • Child
    • Liver failure or disease
    • Concurrent use of prescribed drugs that raise potassium levels
  2. What factors increase the risk of side or adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient taking the calcium channel blockers (dihydropyridines) nifedipine (Adalat, Procardia)?
    • Heart failure
    • Gastroesophageal reflex disease
  3. What factors increase the risk of side or adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient taking the loop diuretic furosemide (Lasix)?
    • Renal or liver disorders
    • Acute myocardial infarction (MI) with cardiogenic shock
    • Ventricular dysrhythmias
    • Heart failure
    • Diarrhea
    • History of gout or systemic lupus erythematosus
    • Diabetes mellitus
  4. What factors increase the risk of side or adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient taking the cardiac glycosides digoxin (Lanoxin)?
    • Hypokalemia
    • Impaired renal function
    • An infant, child or older adult
    • Acute myocardial infarction (MI) and severe heart failure
    • Dysrhythmias, such as incomplete heart block
  5. What factors increase the risk of side or adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient taking the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor drug captopril (Capoten)?
    • Decreased renal function
    • Bone marrow depression or use of other drugs that cause immunosuppression
    • Autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis
    • Cardiovascular disease
    • Cerebrovascular disease
    • Heart failure
    • Hyperkalemia
    • Hyponatremia
    • Older adult
  6. What factors increase the risk of side or adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient taking the class IA/sodium channel blocker drugs quinidine (Apo-Quinidine, Novo-Quinidine) and procainamide (Pronestyl)?
    • Impaired liver or kidney function
    • First degree heart block
    • Electrolyte imbalance
    • Asthma
    • Procainamide: Heart failure (HF), myocardial infarction (MI), digitalis-caused dysrhythmia, aspirin allergy
    • Quinidine: Myasthenia gravis
  7. What factors increase the risk of side or adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient taking the direct-acting vasodilator (hydralazine) drug hydralazine (Apresoline)?
    • Coronary heart disease
    • Stroke
    • Renal dysfunction
    • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
  8. What factors increase the risk of side or adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient taking the class III/potassium channel blocker amiodarone (Cordarone)?
    • Any hepatic disease
    • Any thyroid dysfunction
    • Heart failure
    • Electrolyte imbalance or hypovolemia
    • Pulmonary disease, such as COPD
    • Heart surgery
  9. What factors increase the risk of side or adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient taking the alpha/beta blocker carvedilol (Coreg)?
    • Child or adolescent younger than 18 years old
    • Diabetes mellitus
    • Renal or liver disorders
    • Peripheral vascular disease
    • Depressive disorders
  10. What factors increase the risk of side or adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient taking the class IC/sodium channel blockers flecainide (Tambocor) and propafenone (Rythmol)?
    • Allergy to lidocaine and other amide anesthetics
    • Atrial fibrillation
    • Cardiac, renal or hepatic disease
  11. What factors increase the risk of side or adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient taking the class IB/sodium channel blocker, lidocaine (Xylocaine)?
    • Renal or liver disorders
    • Heart failure
    • Respiratory depression or low blood oxygen levels
    • Fluid volume deficits
    • Myasthenia gravis
    • Family history of malignant hyperthermia
  12. What factors increase the risk of side or adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient taking the nitrate drugs nitroglycerin (Nitrostat, Nitro-Dur, Nitro-Bid) and isosorbide dinitrate (Isordil)?
    • Hypotension
    • Hypovolemia
    • Hyperthyroidism
    • Liver disease
    • Conditions that cause dry mouth (sublingual and transmucosal forms)
    • Early myocardial infarction (MI)
    • Older adult
  13. What factors increase the risk of side or adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient taking the class II/beta adrenergic blocker propranolol (Inderal)?
    What factors increase the risk of side or adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient taking the class II/beta adrenergic blocker propranolol (Inderal)?
  14. What factors increase the risk of side or adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient taking the alpha1 adrenergic blocker doxazosin (Cardura)?
    Renal or hepatic disease
  15. What factors increase the risk of side or adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient taking the class IV/calcium channel blocker verapamil (Calan)?
    • Liver or kidney disfunction
    • Duchennes muscular dystrophy
    • Myocardial infarction (MI)
    • Gastrointestinal obstruction or ileus, gastroesophageal reflux disease, hiatal hernia
  16. What factors increase the risk of side or adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient taking the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin) drug simvastatin (Zocor)?
    • Family history of high cholesterol (homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia)
    • History of liver disorders
    • Diabetes mellitus
    • Alcoholism
    • Renal disorders
    • Seizure disorders
  17. What factors increase the risk of side or adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient taking the fibrate drug gemfibrozil (Lopid)?
    • Hypothyroidism
    • Diabetes mellitus
    • Any renal impairment
  18. What factors increase the risk of side or adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient taking the adrenergic neuron blocker reserpine (Serpalan, Sk-Reserpine)?
    • Cardiac dysrhythmias or cerebrovascular disease
    • History of peptic ulcer
    • Chronic respiratory disease
    • Older adult
    • Epilepsy
    • Gallstones
    • Parkinson's disease
    • Pheochromocytoma (adrenal gland tumor)
  19. What factors increase the risk of side or adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient taking the centrally acting alpha2 agonist clonidine (Catapres)?
    • Recent myocardial infarction (MI), severe cardiac disease or cerebrovascular disease
    • Diabetes mellitus
    • Renal or liver disorders
  20. What factors increase the risk of side or adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient taking the angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) losartan (Cozaar)?
    • Concurrent diuretic use
    • Hyperkalemia
    • Liver or renal disorders
    • First trimester of pregnancy
  21. What factors increase the risk of side or adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient taking the phosphodiesterase inhibitor milrinone (Primacor)?
    • Renal impairment
    • Atrial flutter or fibrillation
    • Older adult
  22. What factors increase the risk of side or adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient taking the potassium-sparing diuretic spironolactone (Aldactone)?
    • Greatly increased BUN (blood urea nitrogen) levels
    • Mild or moderate renal insufficiency
    • Liver disease
  23. What factors increase the risk of side or adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient taking the sympathomimetic drug dobutamine (Dobutrex)?
    • Use with MAOI or tricyclic antidepressants or with general anesthetics
    • Heart disease, hypertension or tachycardia
    • Hyperthyroidism
    • Angina pectoris
  24. What factors increase the risk of side or adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient taking the thiazide diuretic hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL)?
    • Heart failure
    • Cirrhosis of the liver
    • Renal disorders
    • History of gout or systemic lupus erythematosus
    • Diabetes mellitus
    • Older adult
    • Asthma
  25. What factors increase the risk of side or adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient taking the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren (Tekturna)?
    • Older adult
    • Patient taking any drug that increases potassium levels, such as ACE inhibitors
    • Patient with low creatinine clearance
    • Diabetes mellitus
    • History of angioedema
    • Respiratory disorders or history of airway surgery
  26. What factors increase the risk of side or adverse effects and thus warrant precautions for a patient taking the beta adrenergic blockers atenolol (Tenormin) and metoprolol (Lopressor)?
    • A patient with heart failure controlled by digitalis and diuretics
    • Asthma, COPD or other chronic respiratory disorder
    • Renal or liver disorders
    • Myasthenia gravis
    • Hyperthyroidism
    • Diabetes mellitus
    • Major depression
    • Pheochromocytoma (adrenal gland tumor)

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