Card Set Information
developing through the life span
how do genetic inheritance (nature) and experience (the nurture we receive) influence our behavior.
is development a gradual, continuous process or a sequence of separate stages
do our early personality traits persist through life, or do we become different persons as we age
Studydifferentcohortsat the same point in time.
– Quick and cost efficient method
: cohort effects . Only allow inferences about age differences
Studythesameresearch participants over several points in time.
– Allows inferences about age changes
: drop out and selective survival effects. Confounds age & measurement time
combine both longitudinal studies and cross sectional
Foundation of Development
Genes (Genotype) + Environment (phenotype)
The question of “how much?”
– Twin studies & adoptee studies. Problems?
– Heritability estimates. Range from 0-1
– Range of reaction (Different reactions to same environment because of unique genetic makeups)
: tendency of genes to restrict development to a few potential outcomes.
– Genetic-environment correlation
: Sandra Scarr‟s theory
• Passive • Evocative • Active(niche-picking)
How do we come to be who we are?
From zygote to birth and beyond, development progresses in an orderly, though fragile, sequence
Prenatal developmental stages
Conception - 2 weeks
9weeks to birth
Boy or girl? Gene on Y chromosome triggers male sexual development by switching on the production of male sex hormones.
Male triggers gender of child
• Conception50:50? Why?
• Multiple births
: Dizygotic & monozygotic twins
• Blastocyst & embryonic disc formed by 4th day. Implantation around 8th day.
• Amniotic fluid & Placenta formed. Functions?
for protection, and nutrition
• Groundwork for all body structures begun.
• By 8 wks, embryo 1 in. long, 1/7 th ounce, yet can move spontaneously, responds to touch.
• Sensitive period
: period of most rapid development & thus most vulnerability
: Larger doses, longer exposure, larger variety-----> worse damage
any drug disease element that may hurt the embryo
• Exact effects of many teratogens hard to pinpoint. Why?
Would use correlation studies/ research.
externalgenitalswell-formed,& finishing touches appear
All neurons produced. Vernix & Lanugo cover fetus
white cream to protect skin
Body systems organize & connect
– Growth slows, fetus can survive if born now
– Fetus responds clearly to sounds & reflexes
– A layer of fat develops under skin. Function?
protect and cushion for organs and bones
– Overall only 30% of all conceptions survive
What „tools‟ do we have to help us develop?
• We are active agents in our own development from day 1, ex. reflexes
eonatal Reflexes (innate automatic responses to stimulation)
– Rooting, sucking, grasping, smiling, moro reflex
– Many good for survival, protection, learning.
– In a healthy neurological system, should not be present after 6 months?
can distinguish several tastes. Preference?
reacts strongly to offensive smells. By 8 days shows
preference for smell of mom‟s milk
use facial expressions
prefers complex sounds & can make fine-grained
distinctions , ex. by 4 days, forms preference for local language – attentive to high-pitched, expressive voices
prefers complexity (colors, curvilinearity & patterned figures). How can we tell?
nearsighted(how long they will pay attention
– least mature sense at birth. about 20/600 – sees perfectly at 1 ft. Reaches adult level
accuracy by 6-8 mo
– visual cliff studies
: Depth perception attained when crawl