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how do genetic inheritance (nature) and experience (the nurture we receive) influence our behavior.
is development a gradual, continuous process or a sequence of separate stages
do our early personality traits persist through life, or do we become different persons as we age
- Studydifferentcohortsat the same point in time.
- – Quick and cost efficient method
- – Problem: cohort effects . Only allow inferences about age differences
- Studythesameresearch participants over several points in time.
- – Allows inferences about age changes
- – Problems: drop out and selective survival effects. Confounds age & measurement time
combine both longitudinal studies and cross sectional
Foundation of Development
Genes (Genotype) + Environment (phenotype)
The question of “how much?”
- – Twin studies & adoptee studies. Problems?
- – Heritability estimates. Range from 0-1
- – Range of reaction (Different reactions to same environment because of unique genetic makeups)
- – Canalization: tendency of genes to restrict development to a few potential outcomes.
- – Genetic-environment correlation: Sandra Scarr‟s theory
- • Passive • Evocative • Active(niche-picking)
How do we come to be who we are?
From zygote to birth and beyond, development progresses in an orderly, though fragile, sequence
Prenatal developmental stages
Conception - 2 weeks
9weeks to birth
- Boy or girl? Gene on Y chromosome triggers male sexual development by switching on the production of male sex hormones.Male triggers gender of child
- • Conception50:50? Why?
- • Multiple births: Dizygotic & monozygotic twins
- • Blastocyst & embryonic disc formed by 4th day. Implantation around 8th day.
- • Amniotic fluid & Placenta formed. Functions?for protection, and nutrition
- • Groundwork for all body structures begun.
- • By 8 wks, embryo 1 in. long, 1/7 th ounce, yet can move spontaneously, responds to touch.
- • Sensitive period: period of most rapid development & thus most vulnerability
- • Teratogens: Larger doses, longer exposure, larger variety-----> worse damage any drug disease element that may hurt the embryo
- • Exact effects of many teratogens hard to pinpoint. Why? Would use correlation studies/ research.
externalgenitalswell-formed,& finishing touches appear
All neurons produced. Vernix & Lanugo cover fetus white cream to protect skin
- Body systems organize & connect
- – Growth slows, fetus can survive if born now
- – Fetus responds clearly to sounds & reflexes
- – A layer of fat develops under skin. Function? protect and cushion for organs and bones
- – Overall only 30% of all conceptions survive
- prenatal development
What „tools‟ do we have to help us develop?
• We are active agents in our own development from day 1, ex. reflexes
- • Neonatal Reflexes (innate automatic responses to stimulation)
- – Rooting, sucking, grasping, smiling, moro reflex
- – Many good for survival, protection, learning.
- – In a healthy neurological system, should not be present after 6 months?
can distinguish several tastes. Preference?sweet
- reacts strongly to offensive smells. By 8 days shows
- preference for smell of mom‟s milk use facial expressions
- prefers complex sounds & can make fine-grained
- distinctions , ex. by 4 days, forms preference for local language – attentive to high-pitched, expressive voices
- prefers complexity (colors, curvilinearity & patterned figures). How can we tell? nearsighted(how long they will pay attention
- – least mature sense at birth. about 20/600 – sees perfectly at 1 ft. Reaches adult level
- accuracy by 6-8 mo
- – visual cliff studies: Depth perception attained when crawl