Home > Flashcards > Print Preview
The flashcards below were created by user
on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?
how do genetic inheritance (nature) and experience (the nurture we receive) influence our behavior.
is development a gradual, continuous process or a sequence of separate stages
do our early personality traits persist through life, or do we become different persons as we age
- Studydifferentcohortsat the same point in time.
- – Quick and cost efficient method
- – Problem: cohort effects . Only allow inferences about age differences
- Studythesameresearch participants over several points in time.
- – Allows inferences about age changes
- – Problems: drop out and selective survival effects. Confounds age & measurement time
combine both longitudinal studies and cross sectional
Foundation of Development
Genes (Genotype) + Environment (phenotype)
The question of “how much?”
- – Twin studies & adoptee studies. Problems?
- – Heritability estimates. Range from 0-1
- – Range of reaction (Different reactions to same environment because of unique genetic makeups)
- – Canalization: tendency of genes to restrict development to a few potential outcomes.
- – Genetic-environment correlation: Sandra Scarr‟s theory
- • Passive • Evocative • Active(niche-picking)
How do we come to be who we are?
From zygote to birth and beyond, development progresses in an orderly, though fragile, sequence
Prenatal developmental stages
Conception - 2 weeks
9weeks to birth
- Boy or girl? Gene on Y chromosome triggers male sexual development by switching on the production of male sex hormones.Male triggers gender of child
- • Conception50:50? Why?
- • Multiple births: Dizygotic & monozygotic twins
- • Blastocyst & embryonic disc formed by 4th day. Implantation around 8th day.
- • Amniotic fluid & Placenta formed. Functions?for protection, and nutrition
- • Groundwork for all body structures begun.
- • By 8 wks, embryo 1 in. long, 1/7 th ounce, yet can move spontaneously, responds to touch.
- • Sensitive period: period of most rapid development & thus most vulnerability
- • Teratogens: Larger doses, longer exposure, larger variety-----> worse damage any drug disease element that may hurt the embryo
- • Exact effects of many teratogens hard to pinpoint. Why? Would use correlation studies/ research.
externalgenitalswell-formed,& finishing touches appear
All neurons produced. Vernix & Lanugo cover fetus white cream to protect skin
- Body systems organize & connect
- – Growth slows, fetus can survive if born now
- – Fetus responds clearly to sounds & reflexes
- – A layer of fat develops under skin. Function? protect and cushion for organs and bones
- – Overall only 30% of all conceptions survive
- prenatal development
What „tools‟ do we have to help us develop?
• We are active agents in our own development from day 1, ex. reflexes
- • Neonatal Reflexes (innate automatic responses to stimulation)
- – Rooting, sucking, grasping, smiling, moro reflex
- – Many good for survival, protection, learning.
- – In a healthy neurological system, should not be present after 6 months?
can distinguish several tastes. Preference?sweet
- reacts strongly to offensive smells. By 8 days shows
- preference for smell of mom‟s milk use facial expressions
- prefers complex sounds & can make fine-grained
- distinctions , ex. by 4 days, forms preference for local language – attentive to high-pitched, expressive voices
- prefers complexity (colors, curvilinearity & patterned figures). How can we tell? nearsighted(how long they will pay attention
- – least mature sense at birth. about 20/600 – sees perfectly at 1 ft. Reaches adult level
- accuracy by 6-8 mo
- – visual cliff studies: Depth perception attained when crawl